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G AMES -T O -T EACH P ROJECT Summer 2002. Kurt Squire: Research Manager, Comparative Media Studies, MIT Henry Jenkins : Director, Comparative Media Studies, MIT Randy Hinrichs: Group Research Manager, Learning Sciences & Technology, Microsoft. G2T Project Goals.

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GAMES-TO-TEACH PROJECTSummer 2002

Kurt Squire: Research Manager, Comparative Media Studies, MIT

Henry Jenkins: Director, Comparative Media Studies, MIT

Randy Hinrichs: Group Research Manager, Learning Sciences & Technology, Microsoft


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G2T Project Goals

  • Explore the potentials of “next-generation gaming”

  • Why gaming?

    • Lively Art (Jenkins, 2001)

    • Culture work (Laurel, 2001)

    • Appealing pedagogical properties

  • Create a vision for game-based learning

    • Lead cross-industry dialogue

    • Ground speculative discussions

    • Learning Sciences + Comparative Media Studies

  • Explore research questions

    • Development issues, gender, assessment

    • Competition / Collaboration


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G2T Activities

  • Design research

    • Interviewing teachers, game designers

  • Collaboration with games industry

    • Brainstorms, reviews

    • 15 leading game designers

  • Working with content partners

    • Colonial Williamsburg, FAS, CMU, MIT Professors Peter Senge, John Belcher, Bruce Blumberg, Steven Pinker, Pauline Maier…

  • Design 15 conceptual frameworks

    • Link emerging pedagogies and game play

  • Developing four prototypes

    • Supercharged, Replicate, Environmental Detectives,

    • Biohazard / Hot Zone (with Carnegie Mellon)


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ElectromagnetismSupercharged!


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Grokking Electromagnetism

  • Cognitive Challenges

    • Subject non-intuitive

    • No first-hand experience of phenomena

    • Routinized knowledge of mathematical procedures

    • “Qualitative” Physics (Forbus, 2001)

  • Motivational Challenges

    • Relevance

  • Supercharged

    • Platform flying simulation game

  • Goals

    • Robust qualitative understandings

    • Deep understanding of core relationships

    • Use laws to identify problem types

    • Visualize abstract concepts


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Supercharged!

  • Show goals

  • Place Charges

    • Ship / crew dialogue

  • Flying Driving

    • Real-time control

    • Gather power - ups

  • “Win” Review Path

    • Visualize level

    • Publish / share levels

  • Assess & Review

    • Aggregated Data





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Game-Based Pedagogy

Demonstrations

Just-in-timelectures

Web-basedResources

Texts

Game

Student

E&MPhysics

Problem Sets

Peers

Classroom Context


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Assessment

  • Game Data

    • Levels completed, time per - problem, solution paths

  • Observations

    • Notes & Video-taped

  • Pre & Post - tests

    • Content “Interviews”

    • Written tests & Surveys

    • Dynamic tasks (zero, near, & far transfer)

  • Interviews with Instructors

  • Controlled comparisons with “traditional groups”


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Game Properties

  • Students bring in experiences with media

    • Game / genre conventions

  • Leveraging game conventions for pedagogical ends

    • Power Ups-Ways of altering variables

    • Resource management – tools / resources

  • Win / Loss

    • Ways of addressing misconceptions

    • Inducing metacognition through social interactions

  • Shareable artifacts

    • Publishing winning / creative solutions

  • Emotional Engagement


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Join us!

  • Information:

    • http://cms.mit.edu/games/education/

  • To participate in pilot program

    • Email: cms-g2t-pilot

  • Contact:

    • Henry Jenkins: [email protected]

    • Randy Hinrichs: [email protected]

    • Kurt Squire: [email protected]


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ElectromagnetismSupercharged


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ElectromagnetismSupercharged

  • Demo Game


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Join Us!

  • Prototypes 1-10 online

    • Documentation and media

    • Designs, pedagogy, technical notes, art

    • http://cms.mit.edu/games/education/


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Grokking Electromagnetism

  • Robust qualitative understandings

  • Experts use laws to identify problem types

  • Deep understanding of core relationships

  • Ability to visualize abstract concepts

  • Can use knowledge to solve everyday problems


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Grokking Electromagnetism

  • Broader Challenges

    • Functional use value – “Why learn this?”

    • Developing interest in science

    • Identity of “Self as scientist”

    • Science as “memorization of immutable facts.”


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ElectromagnetismSupercharged

  • Why Supercharged?

    • Robust, real time, interactivity

    • Depict abstract relationships in 3D

    • E&M laws as basis for flying / driving game

    • Familiar gaming genres and science fiction

  • Challenges to Supercharged

    • Qualitative, not quantitative interactions

    • Constrained to computer

    • Getting learners involved in hard thinking & creating


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Pocket PC

  • GPS / Wireless / Location – based gaming

  • Multiplayer real time role playing game

  • Observing, testing, analyzing, predicting

  • Implementation Contexts

    • Edgerton Center

    • Terrascope Project

    • MIT Classrooms

    • Cambridge Schools


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Game-Based Pedagogy

Game

Student

E&MPhysics

Collaboration


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Game-Based Pedagogy

Just-in-timelectures

Peers

Web-basedResources

Texts

Game

Student

E&MPhysics

Demonstrations



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Game-Based Pedagogy

  • Importance of instructional context

    • set-up, debriefing, and reflection

  • Leveraging collaboration (e.g. Koschmann, 1996)

    • Reflection

  • Power of local culture & conditions (Squire et al., 2002)

    • Adoption & Adaptation

  • Teacher support and professional development

    • Communities of teachers


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Game-Based Pedagogy

Yuro Engestrom, 1992


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“Endogenous Game Play”

  • Immersive Learning Environments

    • Students developing and testing hypotheses

  • Role playing Games

    • Solving “authentic problems”

    • Access to authentic tools / resources

  • Visualization and Simulation

    • Leveraging potential contests

    • Spatial Conquests

    • Remediating physical laws


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Engaging Media

  • Control, Challenge (Malone, 1981)

    • Instantaneous feedback

    • Adjusted Difficulty level

    • Choice

  • Fantasy, Exploration

    • Narrative, whimsy, fantasy, discovery

  • Social Contexts

    • Collaboration, Competition


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GTT Research

555 respondents listed at least 1 favorite game.

  • Final Fantasy series (I-VIII) 55

  • Starcraft 46

  • Civiliation I/ II 29

  • Zelda 24

  • Tetris 22

  • Quake 21

  • Super Mario Brothers 21

  • Tournmanet 12

  • Snood 12

  • Madden Sports 8

  • The Sims 6