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RTI Goes to Pre-K. An Early Intervening System Called Recognition and Response . Virginia Buysse Ellen Peisner -Feinberg. In collaboration with: National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD) National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC)

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RTI Goes to Pre-K

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RTI Goes to Pre-K

An Early Intervening System Called Recognition and Response

Virginia Buysse

Ellen Peisner-Feinberg


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In collaboration with:

National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD)

National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC)

Communications Consortium Media Center (CCMC)

With funding from: Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation


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Objectives

  • Describe a conceptual framework for Recognition and Response (R&R)

  • Consider the origins of R&R in RTI and existing tiered approaches in early childhood

  • Identify key considerations for implementing & evaluating R&R in early childhood


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Defining Features of RTI

  • A core curriculum & effective instruction for all children

  • Targeted interventions for some students who meet screening criteria

  • Integrated system for universal screening and progress monitoring linked to instructional planning


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Broad Support for RTI

  • Widespread local implementation in public schools

  • Additional authority under IDEA

  • National leadership

  • Evidence of the efficacy of targeted interventions within an RTI framework for school-age children (Coleman, Buysse, & Neitzel, 2006)

  • RTI offers a promising approach for improving program quality & instruction in pre-k


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Growing Support for RTI in Early Childhood

  • Special issue on early childhood tiered models in School Psychology Review (2006), Vol. 35, No. 4

  • Topics in Early Childhood Special Education (Winter, 2007), Vol. 27, No. 4

  • DEC brief position statement on RTI in early childhood (2007; DEC Communicator Vol. 1[3])

  • Capitol Hill Briefing & RTI national summit presentations

  • New National Center to be established in 2008 on RTI in early childhood funded by US DOE (IES)


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Existing Tiered Models in Early Childhood

  • Building Blocks (Sandall & Schwartz, 2002)

  • Positive Behavioral Supports (PBS; Barnett et al., 2006)

  • Intervention Hierarchy (Brown, Odom, & Conroy, 2001)

  • Teaching Pyramid (Hemmeter, Ostrosky, & Fox, 2006)


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Conceptual Framework for R&R System


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Recognition: Screening & Progress Monitoring


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Universal Screening & Progress Monitoring

  • Universal screening within first 2 months (NAEYC, 2005) and on a set schedule after that (fall, winter, spring)

  • Tier 1: Do most children (~70-80%) meet screening criteria?

  • Tier 2: Some children (~15-25%) may need targeted interventions, along with progress monitoring


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Universal Screening & Progress Monitoring

  • Tier 3: A few children (~5%) will need more individualized interventions & get more frequent progress monitoring

  • Children with identified disabilities are not required to go through RTI process; RTI should not delay referral of children with suspected disabilities (CEC, 2007)


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Screening & Progress Monitoring Tools

  • Purpose is for instructional planning, not for diagnostic evaluation

  • Designed to be used repeatedly

  • Quick, easy to administer

  • Correlated with long-term educational goals; not tied to a particular curriculum

  • Information on both level & rate of growth


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Examples of Screening & Progress Monitoring Measures in Early Childhood

  • Individual Growth & Development Indicators (IGDIs)

    • Letter naming, picture naming, alliteration, rhyming

    • Get It! Got It! Go! (http://ggg.umn.edu/)


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Examples of Screening & Progress Monitoring Measures in Early Childhood

  • Math CBM (VanDerHeyden et al., 2007)

    • Counting objects, number selection, number naming, counting, & visual discrimination

    • Note: To be published in 2008


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Response: Research-Based Curricula, Intentional Teaching, & Interventions


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What are the responses within each tier?

  • Tier 1: Core curriculum and intentional teaching for all children

    • Core curriculum is research-based & comprehensive across all domains

      • May also include content-specific curricula (e.g., early literacy or math)

    • Intentional teaching of key content areas, including planning and evaluating instruction


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What are the responses within each tier?

  • Tier 2: Explicit small group interventions augmented with embedded interventions

    • Explicit: structured, teacher-directed, content-specific interventions

    • Embedded: occur within daily activities, build on children’s strengths & interests, complement explicit interventions


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What are the responses within each tier?

  • Tier 3: Intensive & individualized interventions

    • Research-based methods for scaffolding-- prompting, modeling, giving a directive & waiting for a response

    • Within the context of explicit approaches under Tier 2

    • Continue use of embedded interventions


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Effectiveness Ratings for Early Childhood Interventions


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An Example of a Tier 2 Intervention

  • Read It Again! (Justice, McGinty, Beckman, & Kilday, 2006)

  • Language & literacy supplement for pre-k programs:

    • Guidelines for implementing lessons (before, during, & after reading)

    • Repeated use of storybooks, picture cards, & other literacy materials

    • Repetition of key concepts

    • Appropriate for small groups


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An Example of a Tier 2 Intervention

  • Four domains of learning: vocabulary, narrative, phonological awareness, & print/alphabet knowledge

  • Consists of 60 lessons, each addressing multiple domains (20 min/lesson)

  • Preliminary research evidence of efficacy in pre-k (Justice et al., 2007)


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Collaborative Problem-Solving Process


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Steps in Problem-Solving

  • May involve teachers, parents, & specialists

  • Establish desired outcomes

  • Interpret assessment results

  • Implement interventions

  • Evaluate & adjust


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Next Steps: A Pilot Study of R&R

  • Piloting R&R in two states in 20-40 pre-k classes

  • Intervention package:

    • Implementation based on the R&R manual

    • An existing assessment system and language & literacy intervention

    • Problem-solving component


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Next Steps: A Pilot Study of R&R

  • Professional development to ensure acquisition of knowledge & skills

  • Linked to manualized R&R framework and curriculum & assessment materials

    • Full-day institutes

    • Individualized consultation support

    • Community of practice meetings


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Next Steps: A Pilot Study of R&R

  • Research questions:

    • Can teachers implement the R&R system with fidelity?

    • Do teachers find the R&R system acceptable and useful?

    • Is there evidence that R&R is beneficial in promoting the development of children with learning difficulties?


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Future Considerations

  • How should R&R be adapted for diverse learners (e.g., ELLs, children with disabilities)?

  • How can R&R be implemented across multiple domains of development & learning?

  • Need more evidence-based pre-k interventions linked to assessments for use in R&R

  • What infrastructure could best support R&R?


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www.recognitionandresponse.org


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