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Politics of India. India. Republic of India. A federal republic with a parliamentary system of government capital: New Delhi. 2nd most populous nation. Population: over one billion Growing at 1.5% a year. Population in 2005. A nation of diversity: languages.

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republic of india
Republic of India
  • A federal republic with a parliamentary system of government
  • capital: New Delhi
2nd most populous nation
2nd most populous nation
  • Population: over one billion
  • Growing at 1.5% a year
a nation of diversity languages
A nation of diversity: languages
  • Constitution lists 14 official “principal languages”
  • English
  • Hindi (30%)
a nation of diversity religions
A nation of diversity: religions
  • Religions:
    • Hindu (~81%)
    • Muslim (~12%)
    • others (e.g. Buddhist 0.7%)
  • all major religions in the world are present
  • one of the major causes of conflict
  • religion can become a political vehicle for social movement
brief history
Brief history
  • One of the world’s oldest civilizations
    • 5,000 years
  • foreign incursions
    • Aryans, Arabs, Turks, Portugal, France, and Britain
    • from 1,500 B.C. to 19th Century A.D.
190 years of british colonial rule
190 years of British colonial rule
  • Informal colonial rule through the British East India Company (1750s-1850s)
  • formal colonial rule after the Mutiny rebellion of 1857
struggle for independence
Struggle for independence
  • Indian National Congress was formed in 1885
  • non-violent resistance to colonial rule
  • Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948)
    • transformed INC
    • unity within diversity
    • non-cooperation movement
  • Nehru (1889-1964)
independence partition
Independence & partition
  • Division of the subcontinent (1947)
    • India
    • Pakistan
republic of india12
Republic of India
  • Prime Minister Nehru (1947-1964)
  • His daughter (Indira Gandhi) as Prime Minister (1966-1977, 1980-1984)
nehru s legacies
Nehru’s legacies
  • His grandson
    • Rajiv Gandhi
    • Prime Minister (1984-1989)
  • His granddaughter-in-law
    • Sonja Gandhi
    • Congress party president (1999 - )
world s largest democracy
World’s largest democracy
  • Resilient democratic institutions, processes, and legitimacy
    • except 1975-1977
    • Indira Gandhi declared national emergency
  • politics in India is characterized by
    • governments of precarious coalitions
    • weakened political institutions
    • political activism along ethnic lines
a federal system
A federal system
  • 28 states and 6 centrally administered Union Territories
    • 2 states are partially claimed by Pakistan and China
federal system
Federal system
  • Relatively centralized
  • federal government controls the most essential government functions
    • defense
    • foreign policy
    • taxation
    • public expenditures
    • economic (industrial) planning
the legislature
The legislature
  • Parliamentary system of government
    • the executive authority is responsible to the Parliament
the legislature19
The legislature
  • bicameral Parliament
    • Rajya Sabha (Council of States)
    • Lok Sabha (House of the People)
elections to lok sabha
Elections to Lok Sabha
  • Vote share of 3 major political parties
prime minister
Prime Minister
  • Leader of the majority party leader in Lok Sabha becomes the prime minister
  • prime minister nominates a cabinet
    • members of Parliament in the ruling coalition
    • Council of Ministers
  • effective power is concentrated in the office of the prime minister
    • where most of the important policies originate
prime ministers of india
Prime Ministers of India
  • 38 years in the Nehru-Gandhi family
  • more and more rapid turnover
economic development
Economic development
  • Under Prime Minister Nehru’s rule
    • private property and government guidance
    • powerful planning commission
    • government rules and regulations
      • opportunities and incentives for corruption
    • self-sufficiency
      • domestic sector was protected from foreign competition
      • protected industries became inefficient
economic development24
Economic development
  • The “green revolution” in agriculture
    • new agricultural strategy in late 1960s
    • seeds, fertilizer, and irrigation
    • India became self-sufficient in food
economic development25
Economic development
  • state-led economic development
    • government-planned private economy
    • substantial industrial base
economic liberalization
Economic liberalization
  • Dissatisfaction with the relatively slow economic growth
    • dismantle controls over private sector
    • further integrate into global economy
  • Financial crisis in early 1990s
    • emergency funds from IMF & World Bank
    • conditional on economic liberalization
      • reduce government budget deficit
      • selling government shares in public enterprises
economic liberalization28
Economic liberalization
  • Economic performance
    • average growth rate of 6% since 1990
    • reducing poverty by about 10 percentage points
    • purchasing power parity GDP: $3 trillion
economic liberalization29
Economic liberalization
  • India has large numbers of well-educated people skilled in the English language
    • India is a major exporter of software services and software workers
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