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Nervous System- Divisions. Central Nervous System (CNS) - brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) - nerves extending to extremities Autonomic nervous system (ANS) - regulates body’s automatic or involuntary functions. Nervous System: Cells. Neurons: Structure Cell Body

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Nervous System- Divisions

  • Central Nervous System (CNS) - brain and spinal cord

  • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) - nerves extending to extremities

    • Autonomic nervous system (ANS) - regulates body’s automatic or involuntary functions


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Nervous System: Cells

  • Neurons: Structure

    • Cell Body

    • Dendrites

    • Axon

      • myelin -

      • Schwann cells -

      • myelinated fibers -

      • nodes of ranvier -


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Nervous System: Cells

  • Neurons - 3 Types

    • Sensory neurons

    • Motor neurons

    • Interneurons

  • Glia - connective tissue cells of the CNS

    • Astrocytes - star shape (attach to blood vessels)

    • Microglia - consume microbes

    • Oligodendroglia - produce myelin sheath


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Nervous System: Tissue Disorders

  • Multiple sclerosis: myelin disorder

  • Tumors: neuroma

  • Multiple neurofibromatosis: inherited fibrous neuromas


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Nervous System: Nerves

  • Nerve - bundle of peripheral axons

    • Tract - bundle of central axons

    • White matter - myelinated axons

    • Gray matter - unmyelinated axons

  • Nerve coverings - fibrous connective tissue

    • Endoneurium- surrounds single fiber

    • Perineurium- surrounds group of fibers

    • Epineurium- surrounds entire nerve


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Nervous System: Reflex Arcs

  • Reflex Arc - Nerve impulses traveling to and from the brain.

  • Receptors - beginning of dendrites

  • Ganglion - nerve cell bodies in PNS

  • Synapse - space between axon and dendrite

  • Reflex - response to impulse over a reflex arc

  • See pg. 205


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Nervous System: Nerve Impulses

  • wave of electrical disturbance that travels along the surface of a neuron’s plasma membrane

  • impulse created by an imbalance of sodium ions on the inside and outside of the plasma membrane

  • saltatory conduction - fast impulse on myelinated plasma membrane


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Nervous System: Synapse

  • Synapse- impulse passed from one neuron to the next

  • Neurotransmitters - chemical compounds released from axon terminals into a synaptic cleft (pg. 208)

  • acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, catecholamines, endorphins, enkephalins


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Nervous System: Parkinson’s Disease

  • chronic nervous disorder resulting from a deficiency of dopamine


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Central Nervous System

  • Divisions of the Brain:

    • Brain Stem

      • Medulla Oblongata

      • Pons

      • Midbrain

    • Cerebellum

    • Diencephalon

      • Hypothalamus

      • Thalamus

    • Cerebrum


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CNS: Brain Stem

  • medulla oblongata - enlarged upper section of the spinal cord

  • pons - above medulla oblongata

  • midbrain- rests between the pons, thalamus, and cerebellum

  • all three contain well mixed white and gray matter

  • function: two-way conduction paths


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CNS: Diencephalon

  • lies between the brain stem and cerebrum

  • Hypothalamus - consists mainly of the posterior pituitary gland, pituitary stalk, and gray matter

  • Functions: Center for controlling ANS, controls hormone secretion, and controls appetite, wakefulness, and pleasure


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CNS: Diencephalon cont...

  • Thalamus: dumb-bell shaped mass in each cerebral hemisphere

  • Relays sensory impulses to cerebral cortex

  • Produces the emotions of pleasantness and unpleasantness associated with sensations


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CNS: Cerebellum

  • Lies below occipital lobe

  • Outer layer - gray matter

  • Inside - White matter

  • Functions - Produce smooth coordinated movements

  • Maintain equilibrium

  • Sustain normal postures


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CNS: Cerebrum

  • Largest part of brain

  • Outer layer - gray matter (cerebral cortex)

  • Interior of brain - white matter (tracts)

  • two lobes

  • Functions - mental processes of all types (sensations, consciousness, memory, and voluntary control of movements)


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Peripheral Nervous System

  • Cranial Nerves (12 Pair)

  • Spinal nerves

  • Peripheral nerve disorders

    • Neuritis

    • Trigeminal neuralgia

    • Bell’s palsy

    • Shingles


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Autonomic Nervous System

  • Regulates the body’s automatic or involuntary movements (main job is to restore homeostasis)

  • Sympathetic Vs. Parasympathetic

  • Autonomic Neurotransmitters

  • Disorders of ANS

    • Stress induced disease

    • Neuroblastoma


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