Voice capacity analysis over 802 11
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Voice Capacity analysis over 802.11. Introducing VoIP and WLans. IEEE 802.11 based Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) are becoming popular While WLANs continue to be predominantly data centric, there is growing interest in using WLANs for voice, especially in enterprise markets.

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Introducing voip and wlans l.jpg
Introducing VoIP and WLans

  • IEEE 802.11 based Wireless Local Area Networks

    (WLANs) are becoming popular

  • While WLANs continue to be predominantly data centric, there is growing interest in using WLANs for voice, especially in enterprise markets.

  • Seamless wireless data and voice communication is fast becoming a reality

  • One key capability in the next-generation wireless world will be Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) using 802.11 wireless local area networks (WLANs)




Assumptions l.jpg
Assumptions:

  • VoIP stations in the wire line n/w are connected to the AP via a p - p link with negligible delay.

  • Channel is error free

  • Stations are within transmission range therefore not considering RTS/CTS mode


802 11 wlans l.jpg
802.11 WLANs

  • DCF based on CSMA/CA

  • PCF based on polling




Mapping voice over 802 11 l.jpg

802.11b

11Mbps

128 kbps- full duplex

Approx. 85 calls supported

However no more than 12 calls can be supported !!!

Mapping Voice over 802.11




Slide12 l.jpg

As packetization interval increases the capacity of voice calls increases

Efficiency increases by decreasing the no of packets per second (reducing the no of times the overhead is incurred)

G726 : 13Kbps

10ms

Payload:16bytes Total:74bytes

74 – 10ms -> 59.6Kbps

20ms

Payload:33bytes Total:91bytes

91 – 20ms -> 36.4Kbps


Voice capacity of dcf l.jpg
Voice capacity of DCF calls increases

  • CBR VoIP client generates one VoIP packet every packetization interval

  • No of packets that can be sent during a packetization interval is the maximum no of voice calls supported

  • N = Tp / (2 * Tt)

  • Tt = Tdifs +Tv +Tb +Tsifs+ Tack


Voice capacity in pcf l.jpg
Voice capacity in PCF calls increases

  • VoIP STAs need to be polled every packetization interval

  • CFP < = packetization interval

  • N = (Tcfb –Tb – Tcp – Tcfpend) / (2*Tt)

  • Tt = Tv + Tsifs


Problems with dcf and pcf l.jpg
Problems with DCF and PCF calls increases

  • PROBLEM WITH DCF:

  • Hard to implement QOS

  • Poor performance under heavy load conditions

  • Low bandwidth

  • Limited number of VoIP connections

  • PROBLEM WITH PCF:

  • AP keeps polling regardless of whether data is available for transmission

  • When no of stations in the BSS is large –polling overhead is large.

  • Without service differentiation-poor performance

  • Support for PCF is not so commonly available


Dynamic point coordination function dpcf l.jpg
Dynamic Point Coordination Function (DPCF) calls increases

  • Differentiation of Traffic Types

  • Dynamic Polling list

    • Maintains active nodes

    • Removing an STA from the polling list

    • Adding an STA to the polling list

  • Dynamic CFP interval and more data field


Slide18 l.jpg

Packetization interval = 10ms; CFP = 20 ms calls increases

Synchronization Problem

- CF polls are wasted and most packets are sent in CP

- Aggravated if more STAs

- CFP will be shortened and CP will be increased


Modified dpcf l.jpg
Modified DPCF calls increases

  • prevents STAs from sending VoIP packets in CP when there is only one VoIP packet in their queue so that the packet can be sent in the next CFP

  • Tries to put voice packets into CFP as much as possible to reduce the no of CF – polls and null packets

  • VoIP packets – CFP

  • Non-VoIP packets – CP


Some other solutions l.jpg
Some other solutions: calls increases

  • 802.11 e provides low end to end delay

  • MDCF-Does not have mechanisms to reduce collisions among same priority traffic

  • no effort to reduce the no of null packets

  • Multiplex- Multicast (M-M)


802 11a b g l.jpg
802.11a,b,g calls increases

  • CAPACITY IN 802.11a,g is greater than in 802.11b

  • This can be attributed to the fact that the peak rate of 802.11a and 802.11g is approximately 5 times higher than 802.11b,

  • the average backoff time is approximately 1/4th (CWmin is 15 as opposed to 31

  • SLOT duration is 9 micro s as opposed to 20 micro s

  • and the physical layer header is about 8 times smaller.

  • However, since the minimum contention window is half the size in 802.11b the probability of collision is greater


Conclusions l.jpg
Conclusions: calls increases

  • VoIP quality is fine as long as network throughput limit is not exceeded (packet loss, delay and jitter)

    • Admission control needed

  • Payload size affects the throughput of the WLAN

    • Increase audio data length per packet

  • PCF,DPCF, Modified DPCF is better than DCF


Slide23 l.jpg
I calls increases

  • The capacity in PCF,DPCF AND DPCF2 is larger than in DCF because packets will collide with each other more in the CP as no of STAs increases, while polling mechanism reduces collisions.

  • DPCF And DPCF2 reduce the no of wasted CF-polls and null packets which results in improving the capacity by 20%


References l.jpg
References: calls increases

  • Using Dynamic PCF to improve capacity for VoIP traffic in 802.11 Networks –Henning Schulzrinne, Sangho Shin, Andrea Forte , Takehiro Kawata

  • Supporting VoIP Traffic in IEEE 802.11WLAN in PCF mode – Donyan Chen,Sachin garg, Martin Kappes and Kishor Trivedi

  • An Experimental study of throughput for UDP and VoIP traffic in 802.11 Networks

  • Voice Performance in WLAN Networks –An experimental Study – Telcordia Technologies and Toshiba american research.

  • Can I add a VoIP call? –Avaya Labs.


Thank you l.jpg
THANK YOU calls increases