Arguments for nativism
Download
1 / 69

Nativism and the Poverty of the Stimulus - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 421 Views
  • Updated On :

Arguments for Nativism. Various other facts about child language add support to the Nativist argument: Accuracy (few ‘errors’) Efficiency (quick, easy) Uniformity (within and across languages) Constrained (POS). Poverty of the Stimulus. If (i) children know X, and

Related searches for Nativism and the Poverty of the Stimulus

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Nativism and the Poverty of the Stimulus' - medwin


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Arguments for nativism l.jpg
Arguments for Nativism

Various other facts about child language add support to the Nativist argument:

  • Accuracy (few ‘errors’)

  • Efficiency (quick, easy)

  • Uniformity (within and across languages)

  • Constrained (POS)


Poverty of the stimulus l.jpg
Poverty of the Stimulus

If

(i) children know X, and

(ii) evidence for X is not sufficiently present in the input to children,

then X must be innate.

 Children come to know things that they should not know, given what they hear.


Example of the pos auxiliary inversion chomsky 1971 l.jpg

the

girl

is

in

the

market

Example of the POS: auxiliary inversion (Chomsky, 1971)

(1)


Example of the pos auxiliary inversion chomsky 19714 l.jpg
Example of the POS: auxiliary inversion (Chomsky, 1971)

(1)

the

girl

is

in

the

market


Example of the pos auxiliary inversion chomsky 19715 l.jpg
Example of the POS:auxiliary inversion (Chomsky, 1971)

(1)

Is

the

girl

[t]

in

the

market

?


Principle of y n question formation l.jpg
Principle of Y/N Question Formation:

 Move the auxiliary to the front of the sentence.

This works for 99% of the sentences in English. But not all…


Sentences with multiple auxiliaries l.jpg
Sentences with Multiple Auxiliaries

John is in the house now that it is raining.


Sentences with multiple auxiliaries8 l.jpg
Sentences with Multiple Auxiliaries

John is in the house now that it is raining.

Is John [t] in the house now that it is raining?


Sentences with multiple auxiliaries9 l.jpg
Sentences with Multiple Auxiliaries

John is in the house now that it is raining.

Is John [t] in the house now that it is raining?

*Is John is in the house now that it [t] raining?


Revised principle of y n question formation l.jpg
Revised Principle of Y/N Question Formation:

 Move the first auxiliary to the front of the sentence.

The girls is in the market

John is in the house now that it is raining.


Slide11 l.jpg
But…

a. The child that is sitting on the floor is hungry.

b. *Is the child that [t] sitting on the floor is hungry?

c. Is the child that is sitting on the floor [t] hungry?


Slide12 l.jpg

So what’s the principle?

[The child that is sitting on the floor] is hungry.

[The child that is sitting on the floor]


So what s the principle l.jpg
So what’s the principle?

Is [the child that is sitting on the floor] [t] hungry?


Slide14 l.jpg

So what’s the principle?

  • Linear Order Hypothesis (Incorrect):

    To make a yes-no question, front the first auxiliary.

  • Structural Dependency Hypothesis (Correct): In order to make a yes-no question, front the main auxiliary.


How does a child learn this l.jpg
How does a child learn this?

  • The child must hear sentences of the following kind:

    Is the child that is sitting on the floor hungry?

  • Nativists argue such evidence is stunningly rare in CDS.

  • Crain & Nakayama (1987) show children aged 3;2 have knowledge of this principle.


Poverty of the stimulus17 l.jpg
Poverty of the Stimulus

At its heart, the POS argument is a problem of INDUCTION.

Induction: how do you go from individual examples to a generalized rule?


Induction l.jpg
Induction

A simple example:

1

2

What’s the next number in this progression?

3?

4?

7?


The induction problem l.jpg
The Induction Problem

  • You’re about to see 5 slides of 3 colored bars in frames.

  • The first 4 slides exhibit a property that you need to learn.

  • Decide whether or not the 5th slide exhibits the property in question.


Slide20 l.jpg

1


Slide21 l.jpg

2


Slide22 l.jpg

3


Slide23 l.jpg

4



Answer l.jpg
Answer

  • NO

  • The property in question in whether the area covered by the bars is greater than 50% of the area of the rectangle.

  • This generalization is more natural for pigeons to learn than for humans.



Slide27 l.jpg

1


Slide28 l.jpg

2


Slide29 l.jpg

3


Slide30 l.jpg

4



Answer32 l.jpg
Answer

  • YES

  • Property in question in whether the 3 bars are unequal in height.

  • This generalization is more natural for humans than for pigeons.



Slide34 l.jpg

1


Slide35 l.jpg

2


Slide36 l.jpg

3


Slide37 l.jpg

4



Answer39 l.jpg
Answer

  • YES

  • You only saw examples decreasing in height from left to right. But the generalization was still that the bars only had to be different heights.



Slide41 l.jpg

1


Slide42 l.jpg

2


Slide43 l.jpg

3


Slide44 l.jpg

4


Slide45 l.jpg
?


Answer46 l.jpg
Answer

  • YES

  • Property in question is whether the 3 bars are unequal in height.

  • But what about the 4th example?

  • Oh, that? It was a mistake.


The induction problem47 l.jpg
The Induction Problem

  • You have to be able to discern the relevant dimension(s)

  • Any set of input data potentially allows an infinite number of generalizations.

  • How does an unbiased learner select the one correct hypothesis from amongst these infinite hypotheses?


Slide48 l.jpg

Returning to Yes-No Question Formation

  • Linear Order Hypothesis (Incorrect):

    To make a yes-no question, front the first auxiliary.

  • Structural Dependency Hypothesis (Correct):

    In order to make a yes-no question, front the main auxiliary.



Slide50 l.jpg

Children are born with the knowledge that language is dependent on structure, not linear order.


Lawn bowling l.jpg
Lawn Bowling dependent on






Slide58 l.jpg

Lots of possibilities dependent on


Slide66 l.jpg

Which is the dependent on correct way to get from initial state to final state?



Slide68 l.jpg

Children are born with the knowledge that language is dependent on structure, not linear order.


Slide69 l.jpg

The End dependent on


ad