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Middle Ages. Between Rome and the Renaissance. Christianity. The Church became the connection between the Roman Empire and the new leadership of Europe. Beginning of Christianity.

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Middle ages l.jpg

Middle Ages

Between Rome and the Renaissance


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Christianity

The Church became the connection between the Roman Empire and the new leadership of Europe.


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Beginning of Christianity

  • Jesus of Nazareth (a Jew) preached compassion and love and was martyred by the Romans at the urging of Jewish leaders

  • Peter and other followers of Jesus start churches around the Roman Empire

  • Paul becomes the leader of the Christian church and writes to the churches to encourage them = New Testament



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Religion of Rome

  • Constantine accepted Christianity, making it the official religion of Roman Empire.

  • The Church developed as a common string of unity between all areas of Rome.



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As the Roman Empire declines…

  • The Church becomes the preserver of civilization

  • It provides…

    • Law enforcement and justice (courts)

    • Protection for the helpless

    • Collection of taxes to render these services


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Adoption and Development

  • The Germanic tribes adopt Christianity as they take over the areas formally controlled by Rome

  • The Church develops a hierarchy with the leader in Rome

    • Large churches in Constantinople, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Alexandria

    • Monks and Nuns continue to spread Christianity in the outposts


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Local Monks

  • Most important job was to copy the Bible

  • Called Manuscripts


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Germanic Tribes grow powerful…

The Franks gain power over Gaul and Northern Italy


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Franks ally with the Popes

  • Clovis, leader of the Franks, builds the Frankish Kingdom

  • In the name of the Church and Pope


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Charles Martel

  • In 719 he was the most powerful man in the Frankish kingdom

  • Stopped the Muslim advance from Spain at the Battle of Tours in 732


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Carolingian Family

  • Pepin the Short takes over for his father, Charles Martel

  • Agrees to protect the Papacy

  • He is anointed “king by the grace of God”


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Charlemagne

  • Inherits the kingdom from his father, Pepin

  • Led battles against his neighbors each summer

    • Spread Christianity

    • Reunited Western Europe



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Treaty of Verdun

  • Charlemagne’s sons fought over the empire

  • The Church divided the empire into three parts in the Treaty of Verdun

  • They were weak rulers and the kingdoms were actually ran by noblemen, counts, and dukes


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Invasions…

  • Vikings from the North

    • Go as far south as Corsica

  • Magyars from the East

    • Push Franks back

  • Muslims from the South

    • Sticks to the Mediterranean Sea



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Enter Feudalism…

  • System of Government

    • Based on classes

      • Two major classes - nobility and peasantry

      • “you are noble or you are not.”

      • No middle class

  • Feudal Hierarchy


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Feudal Hierarchy

  • King

    • Owns the Land, Supreme Leader

  • Lords

    • Knights, Lord of Fief, Defend the Country

  • Vassals

    • Knights, Lord of Manors, Defend the Fief

  • Peasants and Serfs

    • Work the Manor


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Feudal Hierarchy

  • King

    • Owns the Land, Supreme Leader

  • Lords

    • Knights, Lord of Fief, Defend the Country

  • Vassals

    • Knights, Lord of Manors, Defend the Fief

  • Peasants and Serfs

    • Work the Manor

Nobles


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Manorialism

  • Economic System

  • Self-Sufficiency

Kingdom

Fief

Manors


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The Church

  • The unifying agent for all the manors

  • All manors had their religion in common

  • The Pope served as the spiritual guide for all Christians


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The Crusades

  • The Pope decided that the Muslim influence in the Holy Land must be stopped

  • He guaranteed that any knight who fought against the Muslims would…

    • Be forgiven any sin committed during the crusade

    • Be free from any debt

    • Have their choice of fiefs upon their return


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Crusades to the Holy Land

  • Knights and their subjects march to the Holy Land

  • Along the way they burn rival villages, rape and pillage Jewish settlements and kill all Muslims that they encounter.

  • The first Crusade was successful, but three subsequent crusades failed.



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Causes

Muslims controlled the Holy Land

Byzantine Emperor called for help

Pope wanted to reclaim the Holy Land

Pope asks zealous knights to regain the Holy Land

Italian cities desire commercial power

Causes and Effects of the Crusades



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Causes

Muslims controlled the Holy Land

Byzantine Emperor called for help

Pope wanted to reclaim the Holy Land

Pope asks zealous knights to regain the Holy Land

Italian cities desire commercial power

Effects

Byzantine Empire is weakened

Pope’s power declines

Power of feudal nobles declines

Kings become stronger

Religious intolerance grows

Italian cities expand trade and grow rich

Muslims distrust Christians

Technology improves

Causes and Effects of the Crusades


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End of Feudalism

  • The Bubonic Plague ravages Europe

    • 1/3 of Europe’s population dies

  • With the population loss, manors are no longer able to maintain self-sufficiency

  • Skilled artisans (bakers, shoe makers, etc.) begin to form Guilds – unions of like artisans


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Guilds

  • Artisans center themselves between all of the manors = cities/townships.

  • Are able to charge more for their services because there are less people available to do the job

  • Become the Middle Class

    • The Bourgeoisie


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The Bourgeoisie

  • The new middle class required law and order.

  • As their power grew they could convince the kings that they were responsible for maintaining order in the kingdom.

Kings build up governments


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What is a nation?

  • Central government that can defend itself and keep order in its own borders.

  • Common language, religion, traditions and ways of life.

  • A feeling of nationalism and patriotism created loyalty and pride in countries.


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What is a nation?

  • Central government that can defend itself and keep order in its own borders.

  • Common language, religion, traditions and ways of life.

  • A feeling of nationalism and patriotism created loyalty and pride in countries.

CULTURE


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England becomes a Nation…

1066 Battle of Hastings; William the Conqueror, a Norman, takes over the Saxons in England

Norman lords given fiefs in England – they swear their allegiance to William (foundation of central government)

1154-1189 Henry II strengthens royal courts – circuit courts, jury system, and common law

1215 Magna Carta guarantees basic political rights to King John’s lords; no taxation w/o representation, jury trial, protection of law

1295 Development of Parliament – originally called together to okay taxes

Magna Carta and Parliament become a “check” on royal power


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France becomes a Nation…

987 Hugh Capet begins the Capetian Dynasty

1180-1223 Philip II expanded the land & power of the Capatian kings

Philip II establishes stronger central government through collection of taxes and courts

1303 Philip holds Pope Boniface VIII prisoner – challenging the power of the papacy

1226-1270 Louis IX expands the court system

1285-1314 Philip IV develops the Estates General

1337-1453 Hundred Years War: France v. England for the French throne

1429 Joan of Arc helped the French win the Hundred Years War


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