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Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, Second Edition. Chapter 14 Network Configuration. Objectives. Describe the purpose and types of networks, protocols, and media access methods Understand the basic configuration of TCP/IP Configure a NIC interface to use TCP/IP. Objectives (continued).

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Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, Second Edition

Chapter 14

Network Configuration


Objectives l.jpg
Objectives

  • Describe the purpose and types of networks, protocols, and media access methods

  • Understand the basic configuration of TCP/IP

  • Configure a NIC interface to use TCP/IP

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


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Objectives (continued)

  • Configure a modem, ISDN, and DSL interface to use PPP and TCP/IP

  • Understand the purpose of host names and how they are resolved to IP addresses

  • Use common network utilities to interact with network services

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


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Networks and TCP/IP

  • Network: Two or more computers joined via network media and able to exchange information

  • Local Area Networks (LANs): Computers within close proximity

  • Wide Area Networks (WANs): Computers separated by large distances

  • Internet service provider (ISP): Company providing internet access

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Networks and TCP/IP (continued)

  • Routers: Devices capable of transferring packets between networks

  • Protocols: Set of rules for communication between networked computers

  • Packets: Packages of data formatted by a network protocol

  • Media access method: Defines how networked computers share access to the physical medium

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Networks and TCP/IP (continued)

  • Linux network protocols:

    • TCP/IP (Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)

    • UDP/IP (User Datagram Protocol/Internet Protocol)

    • IPX/SPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequence Packet Exchange)

    • Appletalk

    • DLC (Data Link Control)

    • DECnet (Digital Equipment Corporation network)

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Networks and TCP/IP (continued)

  • Ethernet: Most common network media access method

  • Token Ring: Popular media access method

  • Media access method usually contained on NIC or modem hardware

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


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The TCP/IP Protocol:IP Addresses

  • IP address: Unique number that identifies a networked computer

    • Octets: Series of four 8-bit numbers

  • Unicast: Directed TCP/IP communication between two computers

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The TCP/IP Protocol:IP Addresses (continued)

  • IP addresses composed of two parts:

    • Network ID: Network computer is located on

    • Host ID: Single computer on that network

      • Cannot have two computers with same host ID on a network

  • Only computers with same network ID can communicate without a router

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Subnet Masks

  • Define which part of IP address is the network ID and which part is the host ID

    • Series of four 8-bit numbers

  • ANDing: Calculate network and host IDs from an IP address and subnet mask

    • Compare binary bits

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Subnet Masks (continued)

Figure 14-1: A sample IP address and subnet mask

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Subnet Masks (continued)

  • 0.0.0.0 = all networks

  • 255.255.255.255 = all computers

  • 255 in an IP address can specify many hosts

    • Broadcast addresses

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Default Gateway

  • IP address on router that sends packets to remote networks

  • Routers can distinguish between different networks

    • Move packets between them

    • Have assigned IP addresses on each attached network

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TCP/IP Classes and Subnetting

  • IP address class defines default subnet mask of associated device

  • Multicast: TCP/IP communication destined for a certain group of computers

    • Class D addresses

  • Subnetting: Divide a large network into smaller networks

    • Control traffic flow

    • Take bits from host ID, give to network ID

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TCP/IP Classes and Subnetting (continued)

Table 14-1: IP address classes

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Configuring a NIC Interface

  • ifconfig command: Assign TCP/IP configuration to a NIC

    • Also used to view configuration of all network interfaces in computer

  • dhclient command: Receive TCP/IP configuration from DHCP or Boot Protocol (BOOTP) server

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


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Configuring a NIC Interface (continued)

  • /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-<interface> file: Stores NIC configurations

  • Packet internet groper (ping) command: Check TCP/IP connectivity on a network

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Configuring a NIC Interface (continued)

Figure 14-2: Configuring network interfaces

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Configuring a NIC Interface (continued)

Figure 14-3: Configuring TCP/IP information for a network interface

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Configuring a PPP Interface

  • Run TCP/IP over serial lines

    • Use a WAN protocol

  • Three common Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) technologies:

    • Modems

    • ISDN

    • DSL

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Configuring a PPP Interface (continued)

Figure 14-4: Adding a network interface

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Configuring a PPP Interface (continued)

Figure 14-5: Selecting modem hardware

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Configuring a PPP Interface (continued)

Figure 14-6: Selecting ISDN hardware

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Configuring a PPP Interface (continued)

Figure 14-7: Specifying ISP settings

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Configuring a PPP Interface (continued)

  • Information about PPP devices stored in files named ifcfg-<InternetServiceProviderName>

    • /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts directory

  • Other configurations used by PPP daemon stored in /etc/ppp and /etc/isdn

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Configuring a PPP Interface (continued)

Figure 14-8: Specifying TCP/IP settings

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Configuring a PPP Interface (continued)

Figure 14-9: Configuring an xDSL connection

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Configuring a PPP Interface (continued)

Figure 14-10: Activating a PPP connection

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Name Resolution

  • Hostnames: User-friendly computer name

  • FQDN: Hostname following DNS convention

  • DNS: Hierarchical namespace for host names

  • hostname command: View or set a computer’s host name

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Name Resolution (continued)

Figure 14-11: The Domain Name Space

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Name Resolution (continued)

  • TCP/IP cannot identify computers via hostnames

    • Must map hostnames to IP addresses

    • Entries in /etc/hosts file

  • ISPs list FQDNs in DNS servers on Internet

    • Applications request IP addresses associated with FQDN

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


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Connecting to Network Resources

  • Network resources:

    • Shared printers

    • Applications

    • Files

  • To use network resources, must have appropriate network utilities

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Downloading Files Using FTP

  • Most web browsers have built-in FTP utility

  • FTP utility: Downloads files from FTP servers

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Downloading Files Using FTP (continued)

Figure 14-12: Using a Web browser FTP client

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Downloading Files Using FTP (continued)

Table 14-2: Common FTP commands

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Downloading Files Using FTP (continued)

Table 14-2 (continued): Common FTP commands

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Accessing Files with NFS

  • NFS: Common method for file transfer between UNIX and Linux computers

    • Not as common as FTP

    • Mount directory from a remote computer

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Accessing Windows Files

  • Mount shared Windows directory to local directory

    • Filesystem must be smbfs

  • smbmount command: Mount directories from Windows computers

  • smbclient utility: Connect to shares on a Windows system

  • umount command: Unmount Windows directories

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Running Remote Applications

  • Access to BASH shell may be obtained by connecting to a server across a network

  • telnet utility: Most common utility used to obtain BASH shell over a network

    • No encryption

  • Secure Shell (ssh) utility: Uses encryption

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Running Remote Applications (continued)

  • rlogin: Obtain a shell from remote computer on network

  • “r” utilities allow access to remote computers without a password

  • Trusted access: Computers allowed to access a computer without providing a password

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Accessing E-mail

  • Post Office Protocol (POP): Download e-mail messages from e-mail server

  • Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP): View e-mail messages across network

  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP): Sending mail from MUA to e-mail server

    • Mozilla Mail is most common MUA for Linux

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Accessing E-mail (continued)

Figure 14-13: Configuring a mail account in Mozilla Mail

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


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Accessing E-mail (continued)

Figure 14-14: Using Mozilla Mail

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Accessing E-mail (continued)

  • Linux systems typically use an internal mail system designed for administration

    • Daemons e-mail root user when important events or problems occur

  • mail utility: Basic e-mail reader available on most Linux distributions

  • mutt utility: Popular MUA

    • Can run in a terminal

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Accessing E-mail (continued)

Figure 14-15: The mutt mail user agent

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Summary

  • A network is a collection of computers that are connected together and share information

  • Protocols define the format of information that is transmitted across a network

  • The protocol used by the Internet and most networks is TCP/IP

  • Each computer on a TCP/IP network must have a valid IP address and subnet mask

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e


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Summary (continued)

  • The /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts directory contains the configuration for NIC and PPP interfaces

  • The TCP/IP configuration of a network interface can be specified manually or obtained automatically from a DHCP or BOOTP server

  • Host names are used to easily identify computers on a network; host names that follow the DNS are FQDNs

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Summary (continued)

  • Host names must be resolved to an IP address before network communication can take place

  • Files, applications, and e-mail can be accessed across the network with the appropriate network utility

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