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Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, Second Edition. Chapter 14 Network Configuration. Objectives. Describe the purpose and types of networks, protocols, and media access methods Understand the basic configuration of TCP/IP Configure a NIC interface to use TCP/IP. Objectives (continued).

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objectives
Objectives
  • Describe the purpose and types of networks, protocols, and media access methods
  • Understand the basic configuration of TCP/IP
  • Configure a NIC interface to use TCP/IP

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

objectives continued
Objectives (continued)
  • Configure a modem, ISDN, and DSL interface to use PPP and TCP/IP
  • Understand the purpose of host names and how they are resolved to IP addresses
  • Use common network utilities to interact with network services

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

networks and tcp ip
Networks and TCP/IP
  • Network: Two or more computers joined via network media and able to exchange information
  • Local Area Networks (LANs): Computers within close proximity
  • Wide Area Networks (WANs): Computers separated by large distances
  • Internet service provider (ISP): Company providing internet access

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

networks and tcp ip continued
Networks and TCP/IP (continued)
  • Routers: Devices capable of transferring packets between networks
  • Protocols: Set of rules for communication between networked computers
  • Packets: Packages of data formatted by a network protocol
  • Media access method: Defines how networked computers share access to the physical medium

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

networks and tcp ip continued6
Networks and TCP/IP (continued)
  • Linux network protocols:
    • TCP/IP (Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
    • UDP/IP (User Datagram Protocol/Internet Protocol)
    • IPX/SPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequence Packet Exchange)
    • Appletalk
    • DLC (Data Link Control)
    • DECnet (Digital Equipment Corporation network)

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

networks and tcp ip continued7
Networks and TCP/IP (continued)
  • Ethernet: Most common network media access method
  • Token Ring: Popular media access method
  • Media access method usually contained on NIC or modem hardware

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

the tcp ip protocol ip addresses
The TCP/IP Protocol:IP Addresses
  • IP address: Unique number that identifies a networked computer
    • Octets: Series of four 8-bit numbers
  • Unicast: Directed TCP/IP communication between two computers

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

the tcp ip protocol ip addresses continued
The TCP/IP Protocol:IP Addresses (continued)
  • IP addresses composed of two parts:
    • Network ID: Network computer is located on
    • Host ID: Single computer on that network
      • Cannot have two computers with same host ID on a network
  • Only computers with same network ID can communicate without a router

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

subnet masks
Subnet Masks
  • Define which part of IP address is the network ID and which part is the host ID
    • Series of four 8-bit numbers
  • ANDing: Calculate network and host IDs from an IP address and subnet mask
    • Compare binary bits

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

subnet masks continued
Subnet Masks (continued)

Figure 14-1: A sample IP address and subnet mask

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

subnet masks continued12
Subnet Masks (continued)
  • 0.0.0.0 = all networks
  • 255.255.255.255 = all computers
  • 255 in an IP address can specify many hosts
    • Broadcast addresses

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

default gateway
Default Gateway
  • IP address on router that sends packets to remote networks
  • Routers can distinguish between different networks
    • Move packets between them
    • Have assigned IP addresses on each attached network

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

tcp ip classes and subnetting
TCP/IP Classes and Subnetting
  • IP address class defines default subnet mask of associated device
  • Multicast: TCP/IP communication destined for a certain group of computers
    • Class D addresses
  • Subnetting: Divide a large network into smaller networks
    • Control traffic flow
    • Take bits from host ID, give to network ID

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

tcp ip classes and subnetting continued
TCP/IP Classes and Subnetting (continued)

Table 14-1: IP address classes

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

configuring a nic interface
Configuring a NIC Interface
  • ifconfig command: Assign TCP/IP configuration to a NIC
    • Also used to view configuration of all network interfaces in computer
  • dhclient command: Receive TCP/IP configuration from DHCP or Boot Protocol (BOOTP) server

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

configuring a nic interface continued
Configuring a NIC Interface (continued)
  • /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-<interface> file: Stores NIC configurations
  • Packet internet groper (ping) command: Check TCP/IP connectivity on a network

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

configuring a nic interface continued18
Configuring a NIC Interface (continued)

Figure 14-2: Configuring network interfaces

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

configuring a nic interface continued19
Configuring a NIC Interface (continued)

Figure 14-3: Configuring TCP/IP information for a network interface

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

configuring a ppp interface
Configuring a PPP Interface
  • Run TCP/IP over serial lines
    • Use a WAN protocol
  • Three common Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) technologies:
    • Modems
    • ISDN
    • DSL

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

configuring a ppp interface continued
Configuring a PPP Interface (continued)

Figure 14-4: Adding a network interface

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

configuring a ppp interface continued22
Configuring a PPP Interface (continued)

Figure 14-5: Selecting modem hardware

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

configuring a ppp interface continued23
Configuring a PPP Interface (continued)

Figure 14-6: Selecting ISDN hardware

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

configuring a ppp interface continued24
Configuring a PPP Interface (continued)

Figure 14-7: Specifying ISP settings

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

configuring a ppp interface continued25
Configuring a PPP Interface (continued)
  • Information about PPP devices stored in files named ifcfg-<InternetServiceProviderName>
    • /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts directory
  • Other configurations used by PPP daemon stored in /etc/ppp and /etc/isdn

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

configuring a ppp interface continued26
Configuring a PPP Interface (continued)

Figure 14-8: Specifying TCP/IP settings

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

configuring a ppp interface continued27
Configuring a PPP Interface (continued)

Figure 14-9: Configuring an xDSL connection

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

configuring a ppp interface continued28
Configuring a PPP Interface (continued)

Figure 14-10: Activating a PPP connection

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

name resolution
Name Resolution
  • Hostnames: User-friendly computer name
  • FQDN: Hostname following DNS convention
  • DNS: Hierarchical namespace for host names
  • hostname command: View or set a computer’s host name

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

name resolution continued
Name Resolution (continued)

Figure 14-11: The Domain Name Space

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

name resolution continued31
Name Resolution (continued)
  • TCP/IP cannot identify computers via hostnames
    • Must map hostnames to IP addresses
    • Entries in /etc/hosts file
  • ISPs list FQDNs in DNS servers on Internet
    • Applications request IP addresses associated with FQDN

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

connecting to network resources
Connecting to Network Resources
  • Network resources:
    • Shared printers
    • Applications
    • Files
  • To use network resources, must have appropriate network utilities

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

downloading files using ftp
Downloading Files Using FTP
  • Most web browsers have built-in FTP utility
  • FTP utility: Downloads files from FTP servers

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

downloading files using ftp continued
Downloading Files Using FTP (continued)

Figure 14-12: Using a Web browser FTP client

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

downloading files using ftp continued35
Downloading Files Using FTP (continued)

Table 14-2: Common FTP commands

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

downloading files using ftp continued36
Downloading Files Using FTP (continued)

Table 14-2 (continued): Common FTP commands

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

accessing files with nfs
Accessing Files with NFS
  • NFS: Common method for file transfer between UNIX and Linux computers
    • Not as common as FTP
    • Mount directory from a remote computer

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

accessing windows files
Accessing Windows Files
  • Mount shared Windows directory to local directory
    • Filesystem must be smbfs
  • smbmount command: Mount directories from Windows computers
  • smbclient utility: Connect to shares on a Windows system
  • umount command: Unmount Windows directories

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

running remote applications
Running Remote Applications
  • Access to BASH shell may be obtained by connecting to a server across a network
  • telnet utility: Most common utility used to obtain BASH shell over a network
    • No encryption
  • Secure Shell (ssh) utility: Uses encryption

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

running remote applications continued
Running Remote Applications (continued)
  • rlogin: Obtain a shell from remote computer on network
  • “r” utilities allow access to remote computers without a password
  • Trusted access: Computers allowed to access a computer without providing a password

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

accessing e mail
Accessing E-mail
  • Post Office Protocol (POP): Download e-mail messages from e-mail server
  • Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP): View e-mail messages across network
  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP): Sending mail from MUA to e-mail server
    • Mozilla Mail is most common MUA for Linux

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

accessing e mail continued
Accessing E-mail (continued)

Figure 14-13: Configuring a mail account in Mozilla Mail

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

accessing e mail continued43
Accessing E-mail (continued)

Figure 14-14: Using Mozilla Mail

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

accessing e mail continued44
Accessing E-mail (continued)
  • Linux systems typically use an internal mail system designed for administration
    • Daemons e-mail root user when important events or problems occur
  • mail utility: Basic e-mail reader available on most Linux distributions
  • mutt utility: Popular MUA
    • Can run in a terminal

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

accessing e mail continued45
Accessing E-mail (continued)

Figure 14-15: The mutt mail user agent

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

summary
Summary
  • A network is a collection of computers that are connected together and share information
  • Protocols define the format of information that is transmitted across a network
  • The protocol used by the Internet and most networks is TCP/IP
  • Each computer on a TCP/IP network must have a valid IP address and subnet mask

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

summary continued
Summary (continued)
  • The /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts directory contains the configuration for NIC and PPP interfaces
  • The TCP/IP configuration of a network interface can be specified manually or obtained automatically from a DHCP or BOOTP server
  • Host names are used to easily identify computers on a network; host names that follow the DNS are FQDNs

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

summary continued48
Summary (continued)
  • Host names must be resolved to an IP address before network communication can take place
  • Files, applications, and e-mail can be accessed across the network with the appropriate network utility

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e

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