Managing eco-tourism:
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Managing eco-tourism: an ecological perspective. Introduction. • Define eco-tourism Infrastructure & Population • Protected areas & management • Studies: Wolong & Connecticut • Roads and population effects • Conclusion • Future Thoughts. ECOTOURISM

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Managing eco-tourism:

an ecological perspective


Introduction l.jpg
Introduction

• Define eco-tourism

Infrastructure & Population

• Protected areas & management

• Studies: Wolong & Connecticut

• Roads and population effects

• Conclusion

• Future Thoughts


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ECOTOURISM

Elements

1. protection

2. local benefit

3. education

4. tourists & infrastructure


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Eco-tourism = fragile systems

  • Wetlands

  • Coral Reefs

  • Sand Dunes

  • Small Islands w/local endemics

  • Arctic & high alpine

  • Temp, slope, season, degrade etc.

  • More Impact: (Lonsdale et al.1994)


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Goals:

Review effects under eco-tourism plans

Belize Nepal China

Highlight some studies

overall effects

specific effects

roads, invasives, etc.


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Government role

Local guides

27% National PK

Corridors

Eco-policy

BELIZE


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Infrastructure to support

  • 46 Diving companies

  • 20 Sport-fishing companies

  • 2 Major cruise ships

  • 19 Kayaking companies

  • 4 Biking companies

  • 10 Caving

  • 10 Archeological

  • 3 Volunteer

  • 5 Horseback riding companies


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Belize management issues

  • Parks degraded

  • Corruption

  • Water fouled -citric acid

  • Continued deforestation

  • Immigration homesteading

  • Wild hunting

  • Insufficient waste treatment

  • Endangered Plant/Animal souvenirs


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Annapurna

Mt. Everest

UMCDP

Fuelwood depleted

Trail impacts

Garbage

Food scarcity

Open new area

No local benefit

Nepal issues


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Local benefit

Local use

Eco-burning

Plant extraction

Motorcycles

Fuel collect #1

Avoid succession

Edelweiss

Anaphalis javanica

Ecotourism on Mt. Bromo, East Jave


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Ontario CanadaState Park System


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Wolong, China: WWF

  • Most studied

  • Most money

  • Foreign support

  • Keystone species

  • Largest reserve

  • Most training

  • Most visible

  • Most endangered

The Last Panda


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Wolong: A case study

Panda Habitat:

  • Forest Cover

  • Slope

  • Elevation

    = Habitat suitability

    Liu, Jianguo et al. 2001. Science


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Suitable Habitat

1965-1974

Total area

Patches

Number + Size

1974-1997

Total area

Patches

Reserve Created 1974

Number + Size


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Area (ha)

65 74 97 65 74 97

(A) Highly suitable (C) Marginal

(B) Suitable (D) Unsuitable


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Landsat: Remote Sensing

Gray=

Forest

White=

No Forest

R=HS Y=Suitable G=Marginal B=Unsuit


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Wolong Nature Reserve

Human Population

1974 2560 w/421 households

1995 4260 904 households

Other activities

Fuelwood collection, timber harvest

road construction, plant collection

tourism


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Conclusions

  • Forest fragments near non-forest reduced

  • Large tracts of forest fragmented and divided into smaller

  • Panda 1974 = 145

  • Panda 1986 = 86

  • Present: Unknown


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Eco-tourism

  • Road building

  • Increased population


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500 natives

600 invasives

1 species/year

Natural rate =

1/10000 years

Magee 2001 Science


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Galapagos Population:Access and increase

  • 2002 - 90,000 +


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Population 2 X 5 year

Again by 2010

Fishing exploited

Remove 40 mile zone

Abbot 1996 Nature


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Invasive species & population

Mauchamp et al. 1997 Conservation Biology


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A 20-yr turtle study

Population effects

Garber & Burger (1995)


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Turtle Decline & Human Recreation:

A protected reserve

1974-1993

Two populations: Clemmys insculpta

Human population increase=synchronous decline


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Hypothesis re: Decline

  • Habitat destruction Beebee 1991

  • Climate Pounds & Crump 1994

  • UV-B increase Blaustein 1994

  • Exotic species Blaustein 1994

  • Natural change Pechmann 1991

  • Ozone Blaustein 1994

  • Predation Temple 1987

  • Collecting Wilbur 1994

  • Acid rain, aluminum etc.


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Methods

1974-1993

1000-ha

Two populations 100 yr separation

1974-1982 Closed

Marked observed 3hrs/wk 20 years

Compare pre-post access



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Study method

Inadvertant dispersal

15 Coral Cays

2 tourist

4 camping

1 no population

Mode of dispersal

Visitation vs alien

Chaloupka et al. 1986



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Reserves and protected areas in decline

  • Reserves generally

  • Wolong study: infrastructure

  • Turtle study: population

  • Look at infratructure


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Road effects

Eco-tourisms infrastructure



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Roads effects on ovenbirds:

patterns of territory distribution

Study





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Human effects on wildlife

  • Response measurement

  • Flushing distance

  • Approach distance

  • Tolerance distance




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Conclusion:

1. Few eco-tourism causation studies exist.

2. Eco-tourism must be seen in a cumulative effect climate

3. Infrastructure related ecology needed for management

4. Future of NTFP


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