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Intel’s New Processor Architecture. (The High-K gate). What we will be covering:. What is a transistor? What is “Leakage” Why is the High-K gate so great? The Nehalem Project (Core i7s) High-K gates 45nm technology Integration of memory controller. What is a transistor?.

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What we will be covering l.jpg
What we will be covering:

  • What is a transistor?

    • What is “Leakage”

    • Why is the High-K gate so great?

  • The Nehalem Project (Core i7s)

    • High-K gates

    • 45nm technology

    • Integration of memory controller

Andrew Egelhofer


What is a transistor l.jpg
What is a transistor?

  • Does two things:

    • Acts as switches for digital logic – allows them to control a strong signal with a weak signal.

    • And amplifies the signal

      • Critical for cascading logic gates. Without amplification we would only be able to send it through ~3 gates before the signal becomes too “noisy”.

  • In the world of digital logic, AND and OR do not exist. Only NAND and NOR and NOT do.

    • You can create AND and OR by combining NAND and NOR and NOT.

Andrew Egelhofer


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What does a NOT gate look like?

  • NOT:

Andrew Egelhofer


What does nand look like l.jpg
What does NAND look like?

  • NAND:

Andrew Egelhofer


What does nor look like l.jpg
What does NOR look like?

  • NOR:

Andrew Egelhofer


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This brings us to leakage

  • Example: NOT gate.

    • Even though A is high (+5 V) there is still some current to F.

    • This ties into thresholds

Andrew Egelhofer


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New High-K gates

  • "High-k" stands for high dielectric constant.

  • “Old” transistors use silicon dioxide to make their transistors.

  • “New” High-K transistors use hafnium dioxide for their transistors.

    • Because high-k gate dielectrics can be several times thicker, they reduce gate leakage by over 100 times compared to “old” transistors.

    • Runs cooler: cooler = more power.

Andrew Egelhofer



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Core i7s

  • High-K gates allows intel to pack more transistors into a die.

    • More room for more stuff. Like a memory controller.

  • Integrate memory controller directly onto the processor.

    • AMD already has been doing this for 5 years

  • Faster transfer time between memory and processor now (no more Front Side Bus)

    • No more intermediate device.

Andrew Egelhofer


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What is Front side Bus?

Andrew Egelhofer



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References

  • Intel: http://www.intel.com/technology/silicon/high-k.htm

  • Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transistor

  • Our Book: Computer Architecture and Organization: An Integrated Approach

Andrew Egelhofer


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