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Herb Gardens through History and the Plants Therein Ancient gardens: *Egypt *Islamic *Chinese *Christian monasteries *English Physic gardens

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Herb Gardens through History and the Plants Therein Ancient gardens: *Egypt *Islamic *Chinese *Christian monasteries *English Physic gardens Modern gardens. Egyptian garden - formal, with blue walled, & white lotus flowers on the central pond. D. Bown, p. 12, 1995.

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slide1

Herb Gardens through History

and the Plants Therein

Ancient gardens:

*Egypt

*Islamic

*Chinese

*Christian monasteries

*English Physic gardens

Modern gardens

slide2

Egyptian

garden -

formal,

with blue

walled,

& white

lotus flowers

on the central

pond.

D. Bown,

p. 12, 1995.

slide3

Islamic garden

design - enclosed

and intimate. Plants

of fruit and nut

trees, vines and

scented flowers,

outlined by

pools of water.

The Sultan takes

refreshment and

listens to music.

slide4

A biblical herb

garden design,

Connecticut:

Damask rose

‘Celsiana’ is focal

point, 3 theme

gardens - Legends,

Mary, & Culinary.

High maintenance

garden - regular

clipping of ivy &

absinthe to

maintain form.

slide5

The

Chinese

Emperor

Shen

Nung,

wrote

one of the

earliest

herbals

in 200

B.C. He

emphasized

practical

skills.

slide6

The herb garden at the Cloisters in New York City. It

contains herbs used during the Middle Ages - lavender,

thyme, rosemary, betony, meadowsweet, rue, ….

slide7

Close-up, the Cloisters, showing wattle fence around

apple tree, various herbs and flowers.

slide8

4 rings form this knot garden, with barberry and germander

as the rings and a dwarf box draws the design together in the

center. 4 specimens accent the 4 corners and creeping thyme

varieties are planted inside the rings. Garden is easily viewed

from the house.

slide12

In the 1400’s, a doctor selects herbs for medicinal uses from the

herb garden, which contains both herbs and decorative plants.

From Roman de la Rose (c. 1400).

slide13

Herbal

concoctions

had many uses

including

removing pests

from the

head.

slide14

A woodcut from

Brunschwig’s

1500 book,

Liber de Arte

Distillandi,

Strassburg.

Scene in a medieval

herb garden -

harvesting, drying,

storing,

distilling, …..

slide15

Harvesting

sage leaves,

a popular

medieval

herb.

slide16

Doctrine of Signatures or Similars: the shape or appearance

of an herb indicates what illness it will cure.

Doctrine of Contraries: opposites can cure illness,

e.g. hot fever is treated with cool mints

slide17

Examples of herbals….

Hippocrates, 400 B.C., an herbal with 400 recipes

Dioscorides, a Greek physician, 60 A.D., De Materia Medica

Li Shi Zhen, Chinese herbalist, 1590, 52 volume practical

compendia, 2000 drugs, 1170 plants

Girard, 1600, Elizabethan gardner, Girard’s Herbal, 1000 species

Parkinson, 1630, Theatrum Botanicum, 3800 spp.,

herbalist to Charles I

Culpepper, 1652, English apothecary, The Complete Herbal

zodiac and herbal remedies

slide18

Hippocrates (500 B.C.) believed in the balance among the

4 elements and their associated humors.

slide20

Dioscorides’ De Materia

Medica - the most influential

Western herbal of all time, a

standard reference for

>1500 years! Descriptions

of 600+ herbs. Dioscorides

was a Greek physician who

lived in Rome and

served Anthony and

Cleopatra.

slide22

John Girard was

an English gardener

and herbalist (1597)

who wrote The

Generall Historie

of Plants. It includes

descriptions of plants

from around the

world.

slide23

John Parkinson wrote the

largest herbal in English,

published in 1640. The

title “Paradisus in Sole”

is a play on his name

…Park..in…son.

slide24

Culpepper’s The

English Physitian was

a very popular herbal, it

contained astrological

descriptions of almost

400 herbs. He believed

in the Doctrine of

Signatures and enraged

physicians by his

arrogant disregard for

their learning.

slide25

Modern herb gardens…

*Chelsea Physic garden, London, England

*Cranbourne Manor, England

*George Washington’s Mount Vernon VA

*National Arboretum, DC

*US Botanic Garden

*Cleveland Botanic Garden

*Catnip Acres Connecticut

*Denver Botanic Garden

*Huntington Botanic Garden

Small Features in herb gardens….

*Chamomile Thyme Lawn

*Chamomile Urn

*Wheelbarrow

*Sage & Santolina

*A Narrow herb Garden

slide26

The Chelsea

Physic

Garden,

London

England

slide27

Shakespeare

wrote about many

herbs in his plays….

‘pray remember,

rosemary for

remembrance….”

A few herbs were

difficult to find -

earth smoke (Fumaria),

oxlip (Primula),

samphire (Crithmum),

but many others are

still in use today.

slide28

Cranbourne

Manor -

a formal herb

garden with

clipped boxwood

hedges that

create dark and

light areas.

slide30

National Arboretum,

Washington DC

topiary herb

knot garden

slide37

An urn of daisies surrounded A chamomile and thyme

by chamomile. Lawn - hard to maintain.

slide38

Dark purple sage and yellow

Lady’s mantle with lavender

and mint in the background.

A wheelbarrow full

of herbs in pots

makes a small

herb garden.

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