Herb Gardens through History and the Plants Therein Ancient gardens: *Egypt *Islamic *Chinese *Christian monasteries *English Physic gardens Modern gardens. Egyptian garden - formal, with blue walled, & white lotus flowers on the central pond. D. Bown, p. 12, 1995.
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and the Plants Therein
*English Physic gardens
on the central
p. 12, 1995.
design - enclosed
and intimate. Plants
of fruit and nut
trees, vines and
pools of water.
The Sultan takes
listens to music.
‘Celsiana’ is focal
point, 3 theme
gardens - Legends,
Mary, & Culinary.
garden - regular
clipping of ivy &
one of the
contains herbs used during the Middle Ages - lavender,
thyme, rosemary, betony, meadowsweet, rue, ….
apple tree, various herbs and flowers.
as the rings and a dwarf box draws the design together in the
center. 4 specimens accent the 4 corners and creeping thyme
varieties are planted inside the rings. Garden is easily viewed
from the house.
herb garden, which contains both herbs and decorative plants.
From Roman de la Rose (c. 1400).
Herbal from the
had many uses
A woodcut from from the
Liber de Arte
Scene in a medieval
herb garden -
Harvesting from the
of an herb indicates what illness it will cure.
Doctrine of Contraries: opposites can cure illness,
e.g. hot fever is treated with cool mints
Examples of herbals…. from the
Hippocrates, 400 B.C., an herbal with 400 recipes
Dioscorides, a Greek physician, 60 A.D., De Materia Medica
Li Shi Zhen, Chinese herbalist, 1590, 52 volume practical
compendia, 2000 drugs, 1170 plants
Girard, 1600, Elizabethan gardner, Girard’s Herbal, 1000 species
Parkinson, 1630, Theatrum Botanicum, 3800 spp.,
herbalist to Charles I
Culpepper, 1652, English apothecary, The Complete Herbal
zodiac and herbal remedies
4 elements and their associated humors.
basic groups of plants.
Dioscorides’ De Materia from the
Medica - the most influential
Western herbal of all time, a
standard reference for
>1500 years! Descriptions
of 600+ herbs. Dioscorides
was a Greek physician who
lived in Rome and
served Anthony and
Chinese herbalist Li Shi Zhen, 1590, 52 volume practical compendia, 2000 drugs, 1170 plants
John Girard was compendia, 2000 drugs, 1170 plants
an English gardener
and herbalist (1597)
who wrote The
of Plants. It includes
descriptions of plants
from around the
John Parkinson wrote the compendia, 2000 drugs, 1170 plants
largest herbal in English,
published in 1640. The
title “Paradisus in Sole”
is a play on his name
Culpepper’s The compendia, 2000 drugs, 1170 plants
English Physitian was
a very popular herbal, it
descriptions of almost
400 herbs. He believed
in the Doctrine of
Signatures and enraged
physicians by his
arrogant disregard for
Modern herb gardens… compendia, 2000 drugs, 1170 plants
*Chelsea Physic garden, London, England
*Cranbourne Manor, England
*George Washington’s Mount Vernon VA
*National Arboretum, DC
*US Botanic Garden
*Cleveland Botanic Garden
*Catnip Acres Connecticut
*Denver Botanic Garden
*Huntington Botanic Garden
Small Features in herb gardens….
*Chamomile Thyme Lawn
*Sage & Santolina
*A Narrow herb Garden
The Chelsea compendia, 2000 drugs, 1170 plants
Shakespeare compendia, 2000 drugs, 1170 plants
wrote about many
herbs in his plays….
A few herbs were
difficult to find -
earth smoke (Fumaria),
but many others are
still in use today.
Cranbourne compendia, 2000 drugs, 1170 plants
a formal herb
create dark and
National Arboretum, compendia, 2000 drugs, 1170 plants
National Arboretum Knot Garden, Washington DC compendia, 2000 drugs, 1170 plants
US Botanic Garden - formal knot herb garden compendia, 2000 drugs, 1170 plants
Cleveland’s Botanic Garden with a very formal compendia, 2000 drugs, 1170 plants
herb knot garden.
An informal herb garden at Catnip Acres in Connecticut. compendia, 2000 drugs, 1170 plants
Denver Botanic Garden compendia, 2000 drugs, 1170 plants
Huntington CA Botanic Garden compendia, 2000 drugs, 1170 plants
by chamomile. Lawn - hard to maintain.
Lady’s mantle with lavender
and mint in the background.
A wheelbarrow full
of herbs in pots
makes a small