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Figure 24-9-Table 24-1. Figure 24-4a. Living species “succeed” fossil species. Present-day sloth from South America. Fossil sloth from South America. Transitional forms during the evolution of whales. Figure 24-4b. Pakicetus , about 50 myo. Ambulocetus , about 49 myo.

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Figure 24 4a l.jpg

Figure 24-4a

Living species “succeed” fossil species

Present-day sloth from

South America

Fossil sloth from South

America


Figure 24 4b l.jpg

Transitional forms during the evolution of whales

Figure 24-4b

Pakicetus, about 50 myo

Ambulocetus, about 49 myo

Rhodocetus, about 47 myo

Basilosaurus, about 38 myo


Figure 24 5a l.jpg

The human tailbone is a vestigial trait.

Figure 24-5a

Capuchin

monkey tail

Human

coccyx

(used for balance, locomotion)


Figure 24 6 l.jpg

Darwin reasoned that they share a common ancestor.

Four mockingbird species on the Galápagos islands

Figure 24-6

Galápagos

islands

Central

islands

Western

islands

Eastern

islands

Southern

islands

Nesomimus parvulus

Nesomimus melanotis

Mockingbirds from….

Eastern

islands

Southern

islands

Central

islands

Western

islands

Over time, the

population

diversified into several distinct species on different island groups

An ancestral population

colonized the islands

Nesomimus macdonaldi

Nesomimus trifasciatus


Figure 27 2 l.jpg

Homoplasy: Traits are similar but were not inherited from a common ancestor.

Figure 27-2

Common dolphin

Ichthyosaur

Monotremes

Ichthyosaurs

Whales and

dolphins

Marsupials

Synapsids

Pterosaurs

Elephants

Dinosaurs

Primates

Rodents

Lizards

Birds

The members of lineages

between the dolphins and

ichthyosaurs do not have

adaptations such as:

–streamlined bodies

– long jaws filled with teeth

–fins and flippers

The dolphin and ichthyosaur

lineages are far apart on the

evolutionary tree, suggesting

that they are not closely

related

Homology: Similarities are inherited from a common ancestor.

Fruit-fly Hox complex

Human Hox complex

(insects, spiders,

(snails, clams,

crustaceans)

(earthworms,

sand dollars)

Echinoderms

(vertebrates)

Arthropods

Flatworms

Chordates

(sea stars,

Mollusks

The genes in the Hox

complexes of fruit flies

and humans have similar

sequences and are in the

same order on their

chromosomes

leeches)

Annelids

squid)

Annelids, mollusks, and

echinoderms also have

Hox genes

Infer that common

ancestor had 8

Hox genes


Figure 24 7 l.jpg

Figure 24-7 common ancestor.

Gene:

Amino acid sequence (single-letter abbreviations):

Aniridia (Human)

eyeless (Fruit fly)

Only six of the 60 amino acids in these sequences are different. The two sequences are 90% identical.


Figure 24 8 l.jpg

Figure 24-8 common ancestor.

Gill pouch

Gill pouch

Gill pouch

Tail

Tail

Tail

Chick

House cat

Human


Figure 24 9 l.jpg

Figure 24-9 common ancestor.

Humerus

Radius and ulna

Carpals

Metacarpals

Phalanges

Seal

Horse

Bird

Bat

Human

Turtle


Figure 24 13b setup l.jpg

Figure 24-13b-setup common ancestor.


Figure 24 13c results l.jpg

Figure 24-13c-results common ancestor.


Figure 24 14 l.jpg

Overall body size has decreased common ancestor.

Figure 24-14

No net change in beak size over this interval

Beaks have become more pointed


Figure 27 8a l.jpg

Figure 27-8a common ancestor.

The Precambrian (Hadean, Archaean, and Proterozoic Eons) included the origin of life, photosynthesis, and the oxygen

atmosphere.

First oceans; heavy bombardment

from space ends

First evidence of oxygenic

photosynthesis

First rocks containing oxygen

(in atmosphere and ocean)

First evidence of photosynthetic

cells

First sponges; first bilaterally

symmetric animals; ocean

completely oxygenated

First photosynthetic eukaryotes

First red algae; first evidence

of sexual structures

Formation of solar system

Earth formation complete

Liquid water on Earth

First lichen-like organism

First eukaryotic fossils

Moon forms

Origin of life

Hadean Eon

Archaean Eon

Proterozoic Eon

All life is unicellular

Multicellular

organisms begin

to diversify slowly

Millions of years ago (mya)

Position of the continents unknown

Most of Earth is covered

in ocean and ice.


Figure 27 8b l.jpg

Figure 27-8b common ancestor.

Phanerozoic Eon: The Paleozoic Era included the origin early diversification of animals, land plants, and fungi.

First ferns, vascular plants,

ascomycete fungi, lichens on land

First mycorrhizal fungi (Glomales)

First comb jellies, arthropods,

vertebrates, other phyla

First tetrapods (amphibians)

First mammal-like reptiles

First basidiomycete fungi

First bryozoans (newest

animal phylum)

First plants with leaves

Arthropods diversify;

first echinoderm

First cartilaginous fish

First winged insects

First tree-sized plants

First fish with jaws

First seed plants

First land plants

First bony fish

First insects

First vessels

in plants

First reptiles

Carboniferous

Mass

extinction

Mass

extinction

Mass

extinction

Permian

Cambrian

Ordovician

Silurian

Devonian

Mississippian

Pennsylvanian

Coal-forming swamps

diminish; parts of

Antarctica forested

First upland plant

communities

(evergreen forests),

diversification of fish,

emergence of

amphibians

Insects diversify,

coal-forming swamps

abundant, sharks

abundant, radiation

of amphibians

Echinoderms

(sea stars, sea

urchins) diversify

Coral

reefs

expand

Algae abundant,

marine

invertebrates

diversify

Laurentia

Pangea

Gondwana

Gondwana

Gondwana

Supercontinent of Gondwana

forms. Oceans cover much of

North America. Climate not

well known.

Climate cold;

extensive ice

in Gondwana.

Supercontinent of Laurentia

to the north and Gondwana

to the south. Climate mild.

Supercontinent Pangea

assembles. Building of

Appalachian Mountains ends.

Climate warm; little variation.


Figure 27 8c l.jpg

Figure 27-8c common ancestor.

Phanerozoic Eon: The Mesozoic Era is sometimes called the Age of Reptiles.

First angiosperm (flowering plant)

First nectar-drinking insects

First tyrannosaurid dinosaur

First magnolia-family plants

First bird (Archaeopteryx)

First placental mammals

First centric diatoms

First water lilies

First bee; first ant

First dinosaurs

First mammals

Mass

extinction

Mass

extinction

Mass

extinction

Triasssic

Jurassic

Cretaceous

Flowering plants diversify

Gymnosperms become dominant

land plants; extensive deserts

Gymnosperms continue

to dominate land

Dinosaurs diversify

Pangea

Pangea

Gondwana

India separated from Madagascar,

moves north; Rocky Mountains

form. Climate mild, temperate.

Pangea begins to break apart;

interior of continent still arid.

Gondwana begins to break

apart; interior less arid.

Pangea intact. Interior

of Pangea arid. Climate

very warm.


Figure 27 8d l.jpg

Figure 27-8d common ancestor.

Phanerozoic Eon: The Cenozoic Era is nicknamed the Age of Mammals.

First fully aquatic whales

Oldest pollen from

daisy-family plants

Earliest hominins

First primates

First horses

First apes

Homo

sapiens

Paleogene

Neogene

Pleistocene

Pliocene

Paleocene

Eocene

Oligocene

Miocene

Diversification of

mammalian orders

Diversification of angiosperms

and pollinating insects

Diversification of grazing mammals

Continents continue to drift apart.

Collision of India with Eurasia begins.

Australia moves north from Antarctica.

Palms in Greenland and Patagonia.

Strong drying trend in

Africa and other continents;

grasslands form. Alps and

Himalayas begin to rise.

Continents close to present

position. Beginning of

Antarctic ice cap. Opening

of Red Sea.

North and South America

joined by land bridge.

Uplift of the Sierra Nevada.

Worldwide glaciation.


Slide17 l.jpg

These two figures show former temperatures with major periods of glaciation labeled. The dashed lines are the present global average temperature of about 15° C (59° F). Thus the solid curves show small changes from this average; note that the temperature drops only about 5° C during a glaciation. This has occurred about every 100,000 years, with smaller wiggles in between. That is, there has been a 100,000 year glaciation cycle for the past million years or so, and there may be shorter cycles as well.

http://vathena.arc.nasa.gov/curric/land/global/climchng.html


Slide18 l.jpg

http://www.public.iastate.edu/~alloquep/eco/geoHist.html periods of glaciation labeled. The dashed lines are the present global average temperature of about 15° C (59° F). Thus the solid curves show small changes from this average; note that the temperature drops only about 5° C during a glaciation. This has occurred about every 100,000 years, with smaller wiggles in between. That is, there has been a 100,000 year glaciation cycle for the past million years or so, and there may be shorter cycles as well.


Slide19 l.jpg

http://www.public.iastate.edu/~alloquep/eco/geoHist.html periods of glaciation labeled. The dashed lines are the present global average temperature of about 15° C (59° F). Thus the solid curves show small changes from this average; note that the temperature drops only about 5° C during a glaciation. This has occurred about every 100,000 years, with smaller wiggles in between. That is, there has been a 100,000 year glaciation cycle for the past million years or so, and there may be shorter cycles as well.


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