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DOE-2 Overview and Basic Concepts. Background. US public domain programs from 1970s Post Office program; NECAP (NASA energy-cost analysis program); NBSLD (National Bureau of Standards Load Determination) Cal-ERDA (California + U.S. Energy Research & Development Administration) program

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Background

  • US public domain programs from 1970s

    • Post Office program; NECAP (NASA energy-cost analysis program); NBSLD (National Bureau of Standards Load Determination)

    • Cal-ERDA (California + U.S. Energy Research & Development Administration) program

    • Department of Energy (DOE) funding

      • First generation DOE-1.4 program (1978)

      • Later DOE-2.0A, 2.1A, B, C, D, E come out

  • Program description

    • http://gundog.lbl.gov/dirsoft/d2whatis.html


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Background

  • Current versions

    • DOE-2.1E (official), DOE-2.2 & PowerDOE

    • Maintained by the Simulation Research Group of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    • Funded by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)

  • Several PC versions & interfaces, e.g.

    • ADM-DOE2, FTI-DOE, VisualDOE (at a cost)

    • eQUEST (freeware)


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Background

  • In the past, mainly used by researchers

    • DOE-2 is powerful but very complicated

    • Require much input time & detail

    • Need efforts to learn & to master

  • In recent years, also used by building designers & energy analysts

    • Consider as the reference program in USA

    • Becoming popular internationally (e.g. for developing building energy codes)

    • Often used for performance-based energy codes


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Background

  • Based on transfer function theory & weighting factor method; in FORTRAN language

  • Program structure

    • Building description language (BDL) processor

      • Error diagnosis & calculate response factors

    • Simulation subprograms

      • LOADS – building loads

      • SYSTEMS – secondary HVAC system

      • PLANT – primary HVAC system

      • ECONOMICS – economic analysis


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Main Features

  • Capabilities

    • Energy conservation studies

      • Building envelope design (materials, construction, etc.)

      • Internal loads (occupant, lighting, equipment)

      • HVAC systems & plant

    • Building design studies

      • Daylighting & ventilation design

      • Energy & environmental systems

        • Such as cogeneration, desiccant cooling & ice thermal storage

      • Economic & life cycle analysis


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Main Features

  • Limitations

    • Cannot model electrical & lift systems

    • Certain constraints on some building systems

    • Inflexible FORTRAN structure

    • Sequential calculation method (L-S-P-E)

      • Not able to consider heat balance


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Input 1

Output

Input 2

Simulation Process

  • DOE-2 input file (BDL instructions)

    • Input files in ASCII text format

    • Commands, subcommands & keywords

    • Basic file structure:

      • LOADS section

      • SYSTEMS section

      • PLANT section

      • ECONOMICS section (optional)

DOE-2

Simulation

Engine


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Simulation Process

  • Run periods

    • Normally whole year (8,760 hours)

    • May run on shorter period (say, one month)

    • May carry out simulation for multiple years (if the weather files are available)

  • Control of simulation process

    • Base case design

    • Design alternatives (done with interface program)

    • Parametric runs & analysis (may be tailored made)


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Simulation Process

  • DOE-2 output reports

    • Standard reports

      • Verification reports + Summary reports

      • For loads, systems, plant & economics

    • Hourly reports

      • Very detailed; for checking by advanced users

  • Program-specific output

    • Summary graphs and tables

    • Customised reports

    • Errors & diagnostics


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Simulation Process

  • DOE-2 output files & reports

    • Commonly read summary reports:

      • LS-A (Space Peak Loads Summary)

      • SS-A & SS-B (System Monthly Loads Summary)

      • PS-A (Plant Energy Utilization Sumary)

      • PS-B (Monthly Peak and Total Energy Use)

      • PS-E (Monthly Energy End Use Summary)

      • BEPS (Building Energy Performance Summary)


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Design

Typical

Weather

Weather

Design Load

Calculations

Energy

Calculations

Peak Design

Loads

Equipment Sizes

Building Energy

and Plant Capacity

Consumption


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Input Requirements

  • Input data

    • Site data

      • Building type, location, geometry, construction

      • Weather data: design weather, weather files

    • Building data

      • Surface areas, windows, zoning, room shapes

      • Building materials, mass, finishes, shades

      • Operating schedules & profiles

      • Internal loads, design conditions


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Input Requirements

  • Input data (cont’d)

    • Building systems

      • HVAC (air side) system type & performance

      • Lighting & electrical services

    • Building plant and equipment

      • Performance of refrigeration, boiler & other plants

    • Data for economic analysis

      • Electricity tariffs/rates, fuel prices

      • Equipment costs, interest rates


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Input Requirements

  • Model zoning (thermal, not geometric)

    • Should consider thermal loads (e.g. interior-perimeter), occupancy, lighting type and schedule

    • For existing buildings, refer to actual zoning

    • Need to simplify the model

      • Combine zones with similar load and usage

      • Intermediate typical floors are modelled as one floor

      • Combine HVAC systems

      • Sometimes, use ONE zone to quickly calculate the load



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Input Requirements

  • General rules for zoning

    • One exterior zone per major orientation (4-5 m deep)

    • One internal zone per use schedule

    • One plenum zone (if plenum returns) for each air handler

    • One zone each for special uses

    • Separate ground and top floor zones


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