Computer Organization. Tennessee State University. Fenghui Yao. Goals. Understanding the computer organization The design and implementation issues of computers will be clarified. The course prepares for the design and implementation of new computers. Organization . Schedule: Text book:
Tennessee State University
Andrew S. Tanenbaum: “Structured Computer Organization”, 5th ed., Prentice Hall, 2006.
1.1 Structured computer organization
1.2 Milestones in computer architecture
1.3 The computer zoo
1.4 Example computer families
1.5 Outline of this book
Primitive operations in a program
Machine language: a set of CPU’s primitive instructions
e.g. 01100000 (IADD in IJVM )
Structured computer architecture: a series of abstractions, each abstraction building on the one below it.
The zeroth generation
The first generation
The second generation
The third generation
The fourth generation
The First Generation – Vacuum Tubes (1945-1955)
18,000 vacuum tubes, 1500 relays,
weight: 30 tons, power: 140kw
ABC (Atanasoff - Berry Computer, Iowa Univ., 1942 )
The idea was used in EDSAC made by Wilkes.
TX-0: the first transitorized computer
IBM7090: transistorized successor to IBM709 (vacuum tube machine) – cost millions
PDP-1: 1961, cost $120,000, sold dozens.
minicomputer industry was born
– much cheaper than PDP-1, cost $16,000
– major innovation: single bus
This architecture has been adopted by nearly all small computers since then
- dozens of transistors to be put on a single chip.
- possible to build computers that were smaller, faster, and cheaper
- using the same assembly language
- software written for one of them could run on the other.
Increasing size and power
Minicomputer world: PDP-11 series
- tens of thousands, then hundreds of thousands, and finally millions of transistors to be put on a single chip.
- possible to build computer that were smaller, faster, and cheaper.
- IBM PC, Apple PC
2003, Pentium Ⅳ, 3.2GHz
- Motorola CPUs
- Equipped with Ethernet connection and with TCP/IP software
- 32-bit, 36MHz (contrast to Intel line: 8- and 16-bit 8088, 8086, 80286, 32-bit 80386)
- 64-bit machine, but compatible with 32-bit SPARCs.
- 2 TB (1012 bytes) memory space.
- to fetch binary programs over Internet and run them as part of WWW page.
- a type-safe object-oriented language.
- possible to write compilers that compile to Pentium, SPARC, or other architecture.
- memory consisting of 32-bit words, 226 instructions
- Java compiler compiles Java to JVM.
- JVM interpreter: to execute Java binary program.
Problem: Interpreting JVM programs is slow.
– directly execute JVM binary programs, without the need for a layer of software interpretation.
Our example CPUs: Pentium II, UltraSPARC II, picoJava II
– Computer System Organization