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Computer Organization. Tennessee State University. Fenghui Yao. Goals. Understanding the computer organization The design and implementation issues of computers will be clarified. The course prepares for the design and implementation of new computers. Organization . Schedule: Text book:

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Computer organization l.jpg

Computer Organization

Tennessee State University

Fenghui Yao


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Goals

  • Understanding the computer organization

  • The design and implementation issues of computers will be clarified.

  • The course prepares for the design and implementation of new computers.


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Organization

  • Schedule:

  • Text book:

    Andrew S. Tanenbaum: “Structured Computer Organization”, 5th ed., Prentice Hall, 2006.


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Outline

  • Introduction

  • Computer Systems Organization

  • The Digital Logic Level

  • The Microarchitecture Level

  • The Instruction Set Architecture Level

  • The Operating System Machine Level

  • The Assembly Language Level

  • Parallel Computer Architectures


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1. Introduction

1.1 Structured computer organization

1.2 Milestones in computer architecture

1.3 The computer zoo

1.4 Example computer families

1.5 Outline of this book


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Primitive operations in a program

  • Add 2 numbers.

  • Check a number to see if it is zero

  • Copy a piece of data from one part of the computer’ memory to another.

    Machine language: a set of CPU’s primitive instructions

    Computer design

  • decide what instructions to include in its machine language

  • make instructions as simple as possible

    e.g. 01100000 (IADD in IJVM )

    Structured computer architecture: a series of abstractions, each abstraction building on the one below it.


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1.1 Structure computer organization Languages, Levels, and Virtual Machines



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1.2 Milestones in computer architechture

The zeroth generation

The first generation

The second generation

The third generation

The fourth generation


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The First Generation – Vacuum Tubes (1945-1955)

  • ENIAC(Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer, 1946) – J. Mauchley, J. P. Eckert

    18,000 vacuum tubes, 1500 relays,

    weight: 30 tons, power: 140kw

    Programming:

    • 6000 multiposition switches and jumper cables

    • decimal arithmetic

      ABC (Atanasoff - Berry Computer, Iowa Univ., 1942 )


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  • Neuman Machine

    • the program stored in the computer’s memory

    • Binary arithmetic

      The idea was used in EDSAC made by Wilkes.


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The Second Generation – Transistors (1955-1965)

  • MIT’s Lincoln Laboratory : TX-0, TX-2

    TX-0: the first transitorized computer

  • IBM: IBM7090

    IBM7090: transistorized successor to IBM709 (vacuum tube machine) – cost millions

  • DEC (formed by Kenneth Olsen) : PDP-1, PDP-8

    PDP-1: 1961, cost $120,000, sold dozens.

    minicomputer industry was born


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PDP-8:

– much cheaper than PDP-1, cost $16,000

– major innovation: single bus

This architecture has been adopted by nearly all small computers since then


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The Third Generation – IC (1965-1980)

  • IC: Integrated Circuit

    - dozens of transistors to be put on a single chip.

    - possible to build computers that were smaller, faster, and cheaper

  • Machine families: based on ICs

    - using the same assembly language

    - software written for one of them could run on the other.


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IBM 360 machine family

Increasing size and power

OS: multiprogramming

Minicomputer world: PDP-11 series


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The Fourth Generation – VLSI (1980-present)

  • VLSI: Very Large Scale IC

    - tens of thousands, then hundreds of thousands, and finally millions of transistors to be put on a single chip.

    - possible to build computer that were smaller, faster, and cheaper.

  • Personal computer era

    - IBM PC, Apple PC

  • OS: MS-DOS, Windows, Mac OS, UNIX, Linux etc.


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1.3 The Computer Zoo Technological and Economic Forces



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Example Computer FamiliesIntroduction to the Pentium II

2003, Pentium Ⅳ, 3.2GHz


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Introduction to the UltraSPARC II

  • Sun Microsystems founded in 1982

  • Sun-1, Sun-2, Sun-3

    - Motorola CPUs

    - Equipped with Ethernet connection and with TCP/IP software

  • In 1987, Sun designed its own RISC CPU – SPARC (Scalable Processor ARChitecture), formed the basis of Sun-4 workstation.

    - 32-bit, 36MHz (contrast to Intel line: 8- and 16-bit 8088, 8086, 80286, 32-bit 80386)

  • In 1995, UltraSPARC I (Ver 9 SPARC architecture )

    - 64-bit machine, but compatible with 32-bit SPARCs.

    - 2 TB (1012 bytes) memory space.

  • UltraSPARC II, III: successors of UltraSPARC I, differ primarily in clock speed.


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Introduction to the picoJava II

  • Java

    - to fetch binary programs over Internet and run them as part of WWW page.

    - a type-safe object-oriented language.

    - possible to write compilers that compile to Pentium, SPARC, or other architecture.

  • JVM (Java Virtual Machine): to make binary programs portable across different machines.

    - memory consisting of 32-bit words, 226 instructions

    - Java compiler compiles Java to JVM.

    - JVM interpreter: to execute Java binary program.

    Problem: Interpreting JVM programs is slow.


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  • Hardware JVM chips: picoJava-I (1997), picoJava-II (1998)

    – directly execute JVM binary programs, without the need for a layer of software interpretation.

  • picoJava II: not a concrete chip, but the basis for a number of chips, such as Sun microJava 701 CPU.

  • picoJava II has two optional units: a cache and a floating-point unit which each chip manufacturer can include or remove, as it wishes.

    Our example CPUs: Pentium II, UltraSPARC II, picoJava II


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Conclusions

  • Introducing structured computer organization

  • Review of Computer History

  • Example CPUs: Pentium II, UltraSPARC II,

    picoJava II

  • What next ?

    – Computer System Organization


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