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Chapter 5. TELEVISION and the Power of Visual Culture. EARLY TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS. Late 1800s: cathode ray tube 1880’s: Nipkow’s scanning disk 1920’s: Zworykin’s iconoscope 1920’s: Farnsworth’s image dissector tube 1930: Farnsworth patents first electronic television.

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chapter 5

Chapter 5

TELEVISION

and the Power of

Visual Culture

early technological developments
EARLY TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS
  • Late 1800s: cathode ray tube
  • 1880’s: Nipkow’s scanning disk
  • 1920’s: Zworykin’s iconoscope
  • 1920’s: Farnsworth’s image dissector tube
  • 1930: Farnsworth patents first electronic television
early tv broadcasting 1940s
Early TV broadcasting: 1940s
  • 1941: ten stations on VHF band
  • 108 stations by 1948 (major cities only)
  • FCC concerned about frequency allocation
  • FCC FREEZE on new licenses 1948-1952
  • Freeze lifted in 1952: 400 stations apply for and are granted licenses
single sponsorship
SINGLE SPONSORSHIP
  • Early TV programs usually conceived, produced and supported by one sponsor
  • Shows were extended advertisements
  • Sponsors, not networks, had total control over content
how networks gained control of programming
How networks gained control of programming
  • Increased program length (raised production costs for sponsors)
  • New concept of “magazine” programming, with sales of spot ads
  • Introduction of “Spectaculars” (TV specials) with multiple sponsors
  • Quiz Show Scandal (1958-1959)
changes in tv industry late 1950s
Changes in TV industry (late 1950s)
  • Networks moved entertainment divisions to Hollywood
  • Network news operations (information divisions) remained in New York
tv s information culture
TV’S INFORMATION CULTURE
  • Nightly news began in 1948 (Camel News Caravan, NBC)
  • modeled after radio news
  • primarily averbal reportby an authoritative male anchorperson
  • imagesprovided support
  • 15-minute format
tv s entertainment culture the golden age of television
TV’s ENTERTAINMENT CULTURE: THE GOLDEN AGE OF TELEVISION
  • Situation/domestic comedy
  • Variety shows/sketches
  • Anthology dramas
  • Episodic drama series
  • Continuing serials
economics of television

ECONOMICS OF TELEVISION

How are programs produced and distributed?

prime time production
Prime-Time Production
  • Programs created by film studios and independent production companies
  • Programs licensed to networks for a licensing fee (for 2 airings)
  • Networks sell ad slots to advertisers
  • Production companies lose money on network airing, but recoup it in syndication (deficit financing)
distribution of tv shows
DISTRIBUTION of TV Shows
  • Networks send national programming to affiliate stations
  • Each network has 150-200 affiliates
  • Network ownership of affiliates (O&O’s) was limited by FCC
  • Local affiliates sell local ad time
  • Affiliates have local control and choice
syndication of tv programs
SYNDICATION of TV Programs
  • Local TV stations and cable firms can buy syndicated programs
  • They acquire exclusive local market rights for specific length of time
  • Syndicated programs dominate hours outside prime time (fringe time)
types of syndication
Types of Syndication
  • Off-network
  • First-run
  • Hybrid
decline of the network era
DECLINE of the NETWORK ERA
  • TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES
  • GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS
  • DEVELOPMENT OF NEW NETWORKS
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