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Chapter 3 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Chapter 3. A. Gene function Genes and protein synthesis and mutation B. Genetic diseases Identification of genes Pedigrees/DNA markers Diseases (CF, PKU, Albinism, Huntington Disease, DMD) C. Use/Misuse of genetic information Genetic tests Prenatal testing

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Chapter 3

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Chapter 3

  • A.Gene function

    • Genes and protein synthesis and mutation

  • B.Genetic diseases

    • Identification of genes

    • Pedigrees/DNA markers

    • Diseases (CF, PKU, Albinism,

      • Huntington Disease, DMD)

  • C.Use/Misuse of genetic information

    • Genetic tests

    • Prenatal testing

    • PCR (polymnerase chain reaction)

    • Eugenics (positive/negative)


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    Chapter 4

    • Genetic engineering

      Restriction enzymes/plasmids

      Genetically engineered insulin

      Gene therapy

    • Use of Genetic information

    • Human Genome

      Genomics/Bioinformatics


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    Chapter 4

    • Genetic engineering

      Restriction enzymes

      • Used to cut DNA at special sequences

      • e.g EcoR1 cuts at---GAATTC---

      • ---CTTAAG---

      • palindrome-race car-


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    Chapter 4

    • Genetic engineering

      Restriction enzymes

      • Used to cut DNA at special sequences

      • e.g EcoR1 cuts at---GAATTC---

      • ---CTTAAG---

      • palindrome-race car-


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    Chapter 4

    • Genetic engineering

      Restriction enzymes

      • Used to cut DNA at special sequences

      • e.g EcoR1 cuts at---GAATTC---

      • ---CTTAAG---

      • palindrome-race car-


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    Chapter 4

    • Genetic engineering

      Restriction enzymes

      • Used to cut DNA at special sequences

      • e.g EcoR1 cuts at---GAATTC---

      • ---CTTAAG---

      • palindrome-race car-


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    fig. 4-1


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    fig. 4-2

    Plasmidcircular piece of non-chromosomal DNA


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    fig. 4-3


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    Have bacteria produce a product that the body can’t make.


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    Gene Therapy

    Put good gene into someone who doesn’t have it

    SCIDS

    bubble babies


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    fig. 4-4


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    • Gene Therapy:

      • Is it possible?

      • Is it right (ethical)?


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    Who dun it?


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    fig. 4-5


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    fig. 4-6


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    Chapter 4

    • Genetic engineering

      Restriction enzymes/plasmids

      Genetically engineered insulin

      Gene therapy

    • Use of Genetic information

    • Human Genome

      Genomics/Bioinformatics


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    • Sequencing DNA

      • if interested…see fig 4.7


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    fig. 4-8


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    Genome

    complete genetic material of an organism

    Human Genome project:

    Proposed in 1986

    Funded in 1989

    Preliminary report in 2001 (94%)

    Completed in 2003


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    Genomeresults

    • 95% of human DNA is non-coding (not genes)

    • Fewer genes found than expected (35,000)

    • Many genes have unknown

    • Only 1% of our genes are unique

      (similar to 46% of genes in yeast)

    • 200 genes like bacteria

    • mutation rates differ in different parts of genome

    • Many sites (15) for variability

      (each individual is genetically unique)

    23 =

    23 = 8

    223 = 8,388,608

    223 =

    2n


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    study of the genome

    Genomics

    e.g., identify individual genes

    information generated is called bioinformatics

    uses molecular biology and computer science

    • 95% of human DNA is non-coding

    • introns (non-coding) and exons (coding)

      • see figs 4.9 and 4.10


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    comparative and functional

    Genomics

    • similarities and relationships

    • simple vs. complex

    • gene families

    • gene functions

      • ……

    study the protein content of an organism

    Proteomics

    Normal function

    Disease processes

    Repair/drug interaction…..


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    • Chapter 1

    • A.Properties of living things

      • list them and relate them to further materials

  • B.Scientific Method

    • subject matter and limitations

      • inductive vs. deductive reasoning

    • (specific to general)(general to specific; if…then)

    • Hypothesis:must be testable (falsifiable)

    • Experiments/observationstest hypothesis

      • must be reproducible

      • must have appropriate controls


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    B.Scientific Method (cont)

    Ethics:

    deontological:written code, individual rights

    emphasis on actions

    (right vs wrong)

    utilitarian:greatest good for most

    emphasis onconsequences


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    0

    Genes, Chromosomes and DNA

    Mendel and Peas

    simple inheritance patterns

    phenotype/genotype, dominant recessive

    heterozygous/homozygous, Mendels “laws”

    B.Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance

    Chromosomes

    Cell division: mitosis and meiosis

    Gene linkage, crossing over, nondisjunction

    Molecular basis of Inheritance

    DNA structure and replication


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    Chapter 3

    • A.Gene function

      • Genes and protein synthesis and mutation

      • (diagram)

  • B.Genetic diseases

    • Identification of genes

    • Pedigrees/DNA markers

    • Diseases (PKU, Albinism, CF,

      • Huntington Disease, DMD)

  • C.Use/Misuse of genetic information

    • Genetic tests

    • Prenatal testing

    • PCR (polymnerase chain reaction)

    • Eugenics (positive/negative)


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    How proteins are made (protein synthesis):

    tRNA

    RNA Polymerase ribosomes (protein, rRNA)

    DNA mRNA protein

    4 "letters”4 "letters”20 "letters"

    transcriptiontranslation

    (in nucleus)(in cytoplasm)


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    Chapter 4

    • Genetic engineering

      Restriction enzymes/plasmids

      Genetically engineered insulin

      Gene therapy

    • Use of Genetic information

    • Human Genome

      Genomics/Bioinformatics


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