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Aerospace Dimensions – Module 2 Aircraft Systems & Airports. Aerospace For Cadets. Airplane Systems Combustion Reciprocating Aircraft Engines Jet (Turbine) Engines Controls & Instruments Airports Layout, Signs & Makings FAA Flight Profile Phonetic Alphabet Aeronautical Charts

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Aerospace dimensions module 2 aircraft systems airports l.jpg

Aerospace Dimensions – Module 2Aircraft Systems & Airports

Aerospace For Cadets

Airplane Systems

  • Combustion

  • Reciprocating Aircraft Engines

  • Jet (Turbine) Engines

  • Controls & Instruments

    Airports

  • Layout, Signs & Makings

  • FAA

  • Flight Profile

  • Phonetic Alphabet

    Aeronautical Charts

  • Sectional Charts, Legend, Features

  • Airport Information

  • Latitude & Longitude

Rev. 0 – Feb 2009

Bruce Bream, LtCol. / CAP

Eagle Composite Squadron

Ohio Wing Civil Air Patrol


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Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems –Introduction

  • Airplane Systems Learning Outcomes

  • Reciprocating Aircraft Engine Operation

  • Recognize Engine Parts

  • Jet (Turbine) Engine Operation

  • Cockpit Powerplant Controls

  • Flight Instruments


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Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems –Combustion

Combustion

Atomize the fuel  Add an oxygen  Then a spark

Chemical process  Mechanical energy

  • Fuel: AvGas or Jet fuel carried in aircraft tanks

  • Oxidizer:Air (21% oxygen)

    Fuel to Air Mixture Ratio

  • Rich = More fuel than air

    Stoichiometric ratio (STO-kee-oh-met-rik)

  • Mixture Ratio that uses ALL the Fuel and Oxidizer

    Mixture changes with altitude to get same mixture ratio

  • Thinner air has less oxygen content

    Ignition

  • Spark plug run by high voltage from a magneto

    Combustion is just one part of an engine cycle


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Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems –Reciprocating Engines

Brought to you by INTERNAL Combustion

Reciprocating Engine

  • Engine parts reciprocate

    • Move back and forth

  • Combustion chamber

    • Piston stroke in the cylinder

  • 4-Stroke Operating Cycle

    • Intake, Compression, Power, Exhaust

  • Magneto & Spark plugs

    • Ignite fuel and air in the cylinder

  • Air and oil cooled

rpm

= revolutions per minute

Let’s look at some airplane engine parts

Animation Credit:

http::www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/engopt.html


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Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems –Reciprocating Engines

Animation Credit:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_engine


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Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems –Reciprocating Engines

  • Carburetor

  • Mixes fuel and air for a reciprocating engine

  • Venturi uses the Bernoulli Principle

    • Drops pressure to mix and vaporize fuel

Usually found on the bottom of the engine


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Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems –Reciprocating Engines


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Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems –Turbine Engines

Intake

Compression

Combustion

Exhaust

Afterburner

Sprays fuel into Exhaust

Turbine (Jet) Engine

  • Continuous Combustion Cycle

    • Everything rotates around and flows along the centerline shaft


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Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems –Turbine Engines

  • GE-90 Turbofan

  • - Engine Inlet inspection

  • - 115,000 lb thrust

  • - 45:1 compression

    • - 660 psi to combustor

  • - Weights 18,260 lbs

  • - 3,000 lbs/sec air flow

  • - Fan turns at 2,500 rpm


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Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems –Turbine Engines


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Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems -Instrumentation

Flight Instruments

Typical

General Aviation

Aircraft

Instrumentation

(pre-glass panel)

Engine Instruments

Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT)

Tachometer

(rpm)

Manifold

Pressure


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Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems -Instrumentation

Gyroscopic Instruments

Attitude Indicator

(artificial horizon)

Spinning gyro rotor provides stable reference in space

Heading Indicator

(stabilized compass)

Turn Coordinator

(rate of turn)

Also Skid/Slip Ball


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Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems –Instrumentation

Pitot Tube

Ram air pressure

Static Port

Non-moving air pressure

  • Pitot/Static System Instruments

  • Standard Pressure

  • 29.92” Hg (English) = 1013.2 millibars (Metric)

  • Pressure drops with altitude

  • 1 inch per 1000 feet

  • Instruments use two air probes:

Airspeed Indicator

(pitot to static)

Altimeter

(static pressure)

Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)

(static rate)


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Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems –Engine Controls

Propeller RPM

(Constant pitch propellers)

Throttle quadrant

Throttle

Mixture Ratio


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Aerospace Dimensions: Airports – Overview

  • Airports Learning Outcomes

  • Role of the FAA

  • Flight Profile

  • GA Airport Layout

  • Taxiway & Runway Signs & Markings

  • Phonetic Alphabet


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Aerospace Dimensions: Airports – FAA

  • Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)

  • Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR)

    • Regulate air transportation

    • Standards for Aircraft and Airports

    • Pilot certification

  • Air Traffic Control (ATC)

    • In-flight

    • Towered Airports


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Aerospace Dimensions: Airports – Flight Profile

  • Cruise

  • Descent

  • Approach to landing

  • Takeoff

  • Climb

  • Landing

  • Taxi

  • Shut down

  • Preflight

  • (VFR & IFR)

  • Taxi


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Aerospace Dimensions: Airports – Lighting

Airport Rotating Beacons

Water Airport

White /

Yellow

Public Airport

White /

Green

Heliport

White /

Green /

Yellow

Military Airfield

White /

White /

Green


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Aerospace Dimensions: Airports – Lighting

VASI – Visual Approach Slope Indicator

PAPI – Precision Approach Path Indicator

Approach Flight Path Guidance Lighting


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Aerospace Dimensions: Airports – Signs

Wind Direction Indicators

Location Signs

Direction & Destination Signs

Mandatory Signs

Remaining runway

In 1,000’s of feet

6

ILS

Information Signs

UNICOM 122.9


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Aerospace Dimensions: Airports – Runway & Taxiway Markings

N

360°

18 R

E

90°

W

270°

S

180°

36 L

18 L

Visual

Runway

27

9

Non-Precision

Approach

A

9-27

A

9-27↑

18R-36L↑

B

  • Runway Number

  • Magnetic Heading

  • 2 digits

  • Degrees / 10

Ramp

36 R

36L-18R

B

Precision Approach


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Aerospace Dimensions: Airports – Lighting

18

36

Runway Lighting

  • Runway

  • Edge

  • Lights

  • White in

  • Red out

Taxiway Edge Lights – Blue

Centerline

In-Runway Lights – White

  • Runway End

  • Identification Lights

  • (REIL)

  • Strobes

  • Runway Threshold Lights

  • Green facing approach

  • Red facing runway

Approach Lighting System (ALS)


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Aerospace Dimensions: Airports – Phonetic Alphabet

AAlpha(Al fah)

BBravo(Brah voh)

CCharlie(Char lee)

DDelta(Dell tah)

EEcho(Eck-oh)

FFoxtrot(Foks trot)

GGolf(Golf)

HHotel(Hoh tell)

IIndia(In dee ah)

JJuliet(Joo lee ett)

KKilo(Kee loh)

LLima(Lee mah)

MMike(Mike)

NNovember(No vem ber)

OOscar(Oss cah)

PPapa(Pah pah)

QQuebec(Keh beck)

RRomeo(Row me oh)

SSierra(See air rah)

TTango(Tang go)

UUniform(U nee form)

VVictor(Vik tah)

WWhiskey(Wiss kee)

XX-Ray(Ecksray)

YYankee(Yang kee)

ZZulu(Zoo loo)

  • 1Wun

  • 2Too

  • 3Tree

  • 4Fo-wer

  • 5Fife

  • 6Six

  • 7Seven

  • 8Ate

  • Niner

  • 0Zero


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Aerospace Dimensions: Aeronautical Charts –Introduction

  • Aeronautical Charts Learning Outcomes

  • Sectional Chart Layout

  • Chart Legend

  • Reading Latitude and Longitude

  • Identify Features

  • Read Airport Information


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Aerospace Dimensions: Aeronautical Charts – Deg, Min, Sec

N

  • 360 degrees in a circle

    • 60 minutes in a degree

      • 60 seconds in a minute

        Degrees ° Minutes ’ Seconds "

E

90°

W

270°

60 seconds

1 minute

S

180°

60 minutes

1 degree

Q: How many seconds in a degree?


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Aerospace Dimensions: Aeronautical Charts – Latitude & Longitude

  • Parallels of Latitude

  • Measured from Equator

  • 0 to 90 degrees North and South

90° N – North Pole

60° N

30° N

0° Equator

30° S

60° S

90° S – South Pole

  • Meridians of Longitude

  • Measured from Prime Meridian

  • 0 to 180 degrees East and West

  • Converge at poles

N

Measured in

Degrees, Minutes, Seconds

1 degree = 60 minutes

1 minute = 60 seconds

90° W

90° E

S


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Aerospace Dimensions: Aeronautical Charts – Map Coordinates

40 degrees

30 minutes

North Latitude

40 degrees North Latitude

Prime Meridian is 0° Longitude

Longitude measured from Prime Meridian

85 degrees West Longitude

84 degrees

30 minutes West Longitude

Latitude measured from Equator

Equator is 0° Latitude


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Aerospace Dimensions: Aeronautical Charts – Distance & Speed

1 Nautical Mile = 6,076 feet

1 Nautical Mile (nm) = 6076 feet

= 1 minute of longitude at the equator

1 Statue Mile (sm) = 5,280 feet

1 Statute Mile = 5,280 feet

Conversion factor: 1 nm = 1.15 sm

Example: 25 nm = 28.7 sm

Sectional chart 1:500,000 inches or 1” = 8 nm

Knot = 1 nm per hour (Measures speed)

100 knots = 115 mph


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Aerospace Dimensions: Aeronautical Charts –Sectionals

Sectional Aeronautical Charts

  • Sectional chart scale 1:500,000 inches

  • 1” on the chart = 8 nm on the ground

  • Each chart covers 8° of Longitude and 4° of Latitude

  • Named after a city on the chart


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Aerospace Dimensions: Aeronautical Charts – Legend

Navigation Aids

Towers

Airports

Cities

Wildlife refuges

Water

ATC Airspace

Railroad


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Aerospace Dimensions: Aeronautical Charts –Airport Info

NEIL ARMSTRONG – Airport Name

(AXV)– ICAO Airport Identifier

AWOS-3 128.325 – Automated Weather Observation Service frequency

913 – Elevation in feet Mean Sea Level (MSL)

*L – Lighted runway ( * = with some limitations)

55 – Length of longest runway in hundreds of feet

122.8 – Common Traffic Advisory Frequency

Rotating Beacon

Uncontrolled Airport - MAGENTA

Control Tower Airport - BLUE

CUYAHOGA CO – Airport Name

(CGF) – ICAO Airport Identifier

CT - 118.5* – Control Tower Frequency (* means not 24hr)

879 – Elevation in feet MSL

*L– Lighted runway ( * = with some limitations)

51– Length of longest runway in hundreds of feet

122.95– Unicom for FBO


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Questions?


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