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Aerospace Dimensions – Module 2 Aircraft Systems & Airports. Aerospace For Cadets. Airplane Systems Combustion Reciprocating Aircraft Engines Jet (Turbine) Engines Controls & Instruments Airports Layout, Signs & Makings FAA Flight Profile Phonetic Alphabet Aeronautical Charts

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aerospace dimensions module 2 aircraft systems airports
Aerospace Dimensions – Module 2Aircraft Systems & Airports

Aerospace For Cadets

Airplane Systems

  • Combustion
  • Reciprocating Aircraft Engines
  • Jet (Turbine) Engines
  • Controls & Instruments

Airports

  • Layout, Signs & Makings
  • FAA
  • Flight Profile
  • Phonetic Alphabet

Aeronautical Charts

  • Sectional Charts, Legend, Features
  • Airport Information
  • Latitude & Longitude

Rev. 0 – Feb 2009

Bruce Bream, LtCol. / CAP

Eagle Composite Squadron

Ohio Wing Civil Air Patrol

slide2

Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems –Introduction

  • Airplane Systems Learning Outcomes
  • Reciprocating Aircraft Engine Operation
  • Recognize Engine Parts
  • Jet (Turbine) Engine Operation
  • Cockpit Powerplant Controls
  • Flight Instruments
slide3

Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems –Combustion

Combustion

Atomize the fuel  Add an oxygen  Then a spark

Chemical process  Mechanical energy

  • Fuel: AvGas or Jet fuel carried in aircraft tanks
  • Oxidizer: Air (21% oxygen)

Fuel to Air Mixture Ratio

  • Rich = More fuel than air

Stoichiometric ratio (STO-kee-oh-met-rik)

  • Mixture Ratio that uses ALL the Fuel and Oxidizer

Mixture changes with altitude to get same mixture ratio

  • Thinner air has less oxygen content

Ignition

  • Spark plug run by high voltage from a magneto

Combustion is just one part of an engine cycle

slide4

Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems –Reciprocating Engines

Brought to you by INTERNAL Combustion

Reciprocating Engine

  • Engine parts reciprocate
    • Move back and forth
  • Combustion chamber
    • Piston stroke in the cylinder
  • 4-Stroke Operating Cycle
    • Intake, Compression, Power, Exhaust
  • Magneto & Spark plugs
    • Ignite fuel and air in the cylinder
  • Air and oil cooled

rpm

= revolutions per minute

Let’s look at some airplane engine parts

Animation Credit:

http::www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/engopt.html

slide5

Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems – Reciprocating Engines

Animation Credit:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_engine

slide6

Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems –Reciprocating Engines

  • Carburetor
  • Mixes fuel and air for a reciprocating engine
  • Venturi uses the Bernoulli Principle
    • Drops pressure to mix and vaporize fuel

Usually found on the bottom of the engine

slide8

Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems –Turbine Engines

Intake

Compression

Combustion

Exhaust

Afterburner

Sprays fuel into Exhaust

Turbine (Jet) Engine

  • Continuous Combustion Cycle
    • Everything rotates around and flows along the centerline shaft
slide9

Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems –Turbine Engines

  • GE-90 Turbofan
  • - Engine Inlet inspection
  • - 115,000 lb thrust
  • - 45:1 compression
    • - 660 psi to combustor
  • - Weights 18,260 lbs
  • - 3,000 lbs/sec air flow
  • - Fan turns at 2,500 rpm
slide11

Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems -Instrumentation

Flight Instruments

Typical

General Aviation

Aircraft

Instrumentation

(pre-glass panel)

Engine Instruments

Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT)

Tachometer

(rpm)

Manifold

Pressure

slide12

Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems -Instrumentation

Gyroscopic Instruments

Attitude Indicator

(artificial horizon)

Spinning gyro rotor provides stable reference in space

Heading Indicator

(stabilized compass)

Turn Coordinator

(rate of turn)

Also Skid/Slip Ball

slide13

Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems –Instrumentation

Pitot Tube

Ram air pressure

Static Port

Non-moving air pressure

  • Pitot/Static System Instruments
  • Standard Pressure
  • 29.92” Hg (English) = 1013.2 millibars (Metric)
  • Pressure drops with altitude
  • 1 inch per 1000 feet
  • Instruments use two air probes:

Airspeed Indicator

(pitot to static)

Altimeter

(static pressure)

Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)

(static rate)

slide14

Aerospace Dimensions: Airplane Systems –Engine Controls

Propeller RPM

(Constant pitch propellers)

Throttle quadrant

Throttle

Mixture Ratio

slide15

Aerospace Dimensions: Airports – Overview

  • Airports Learning Outcomes
  • Role of the FAA
  • Flight Profile
  • GA Airport Layout
  • Taxiway & Runway Signs & Markings
  • Phonetic Alphabet
slide16

Aerospace Dimensions: Airports – FAA

  • Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
  • Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR)
    • Regulate air transportation
    • Standards for Aircraft and Airports
    • Pilot certification
  • Air Traffic Control (ATC)
    • In-flight
    • Towered Airports
slide17

Aerospace Dimensions: Airports – Flight Profile

  • Cruise
  • Descent
  • Approach to landing
  • Takeoff
  • Climb
  • Landing
  • Taxi
  • Shut down
  • Preflight
  • (VFR & IFR)
  • Taxi
slide18

Aerospace Dimensions: Airports – Lighting

Airport Rotating Beacons

Water Airport

White /

Yellow

Public Airport

White /

Green

Heliport

White /

Green /

Yellow

Military Airfield

White /

White /

Green

slide19

Aerospace Dimensions: Airports – Lighting

VASI – Visual Approach Slope Indicator

PAPI – Precision Approach Path Indicator

Approach Flight Path Guidance Lighting

slide20

Aerospace Dimensions: Airports – Signs

Wind Direction Indicators

Location Signs

Direction & Destination Signs

Mandatory Signs

Remaining runway

In 1,000’s of feet

6

ILS

Information Signs

UNICOM 122.9

slide21

Aerospace Dimensions: Airports – Runway & Taxiway Markings

N

360°

18 R

E

90°

W

270°

S

180°

36 L

18 L

Visual

Runway

27

9

Non-Precision

Approach

A

9-27

A

9-27↑

18R-36L↑

B

  • Runway Number
  • Magnetic Heading
  • 2 digits
  • Degrees / 10

Ramp

36 R

36L-18R

B

Precision Approach

slide22

Aerospace Dimensions: Airports – Lighting

18

36

Runway Lighting

  • Runway
  • Edge
  • Lights
  • White in
  • Red out

Taxiway Edge Lights – Blue

Centerline

In-Runway Lights – White

  • Runway End
  • Identification Lights
  • (REIL)
  • Strobes
  • Runway Threshold Lights
  • Green facing approach
  • Red facing runway

Approach Lighting System (ALS)

slide23

Aerospace Dimensions: Airports – Phonetic Alphabet

A Alpha (Al fah)

B Bravo(Brah voh)

C Charlie(Char lee)

D Delta(Dell tah)

E Echo (Eck-oh)

F Foxtrot(Foks trot)

G Golf (Golf)

H Hotel (Hoh tell)

I India (In dee ah)

J Juliet (Joo lee ett)

K Kilo (Kee loh)

L Lima (Lee mah)

M Mike (Mike)

N November (No vem ber)

O Oscar (Oss cah)

P Papa (Pah pah)

Q Quebec (Keh beck)

R Romeo (Row me oh)

S Sierra (See air rah)

T Tango (Tang go)

U Uniform (U nee form)

V Victor (Vik tah)

W Whiskey (Wiss kee)

X X-Ray (Ecksray)

Y Yankee (Yang kee)

Z Zulu (Zoo loo)

  • 1 Wun
  • 2 Too
  • 3 Tree
  • 4 Fo-wer
  • 5 Fife
  • 6 Six
  • 7 Seven
  • 8 Ate
  • Niner
  • 0 Zero
slide24

Aerospace Dimensions: Aeronautical Charts –Introduction

  • Aeronautical Charts Learning Outcomes
  • Sectional Chart Layout
  • Chart Legend
  • Reading Latitude and Longitude
  • Identify Features
  • Read Airport Information
slide25

Aerospace Dimensions: Aeronautical Charts – Deg, Min, Sec

N

  • 360 degrees in a circle
    • 60 minutes in a degree
      • 60 seconds in a minute

Degrees ° Minutes ’ Seconds "

E

90°

W

270°

60 seconds

1 minute

S

180°

60 minutes

1 degree

Q: How many seconds in a degree?

slide26

Aerospace Dimensions: Aeronautical Charts – Latitude & Longitude

  • Parallels of Latitude
  • Measured from Equator
  • 0 to 90 degrees North and South

90° N – North Pole

60° N

30° N

0° Equator

30° S

60° S

90° S – South Pole

  • Meridians of Longitude
  • Measured from Prime Meridian
  • 0 to 180 degrees East and West
  • Converge at poles

N

Measured in

Degrees, Minutes, Seconds

1 degree = 60 minutes

1 minute = 60 seconds

90° W

90° E

S

slide27

Aerospace Dimensions: Aeronautical Charts – Map Coordinates

40 degrees

30 minutes

North Latitude

40 degrees North Latitude

Prime Meridian is 0° Longitude

Longitude measured from Prime Meridian

85 degrees West Longitude

84 degrees

30 minutes West Longitude

Latitude measured from Equator

Equator is 0° Latitude

slide28

Aerospace Dimensions: Aeronautical Charts – Distance & Speed

1 Nautical Mile = 6,076 feet

1 Nautical Mile (nm) = 6076 feet

= 1 minute of longitude at the equator

1 Statue Mile (sm) = 5,280 feet

1 Statute Mile = 5,280 feet

Conversion factor: 1 nm = 1.15 sm

Example: 25 nm = 28.7 sm

Sectional chart 1:500,000 inches or 1” = 8 nm

Knot = 1 nm per hour (Measures speed)

100 knots = 115 mph

slide29

Aerospace Dimensions: Aeronautical Charts –Sectionals

Sectional Aeronautical Charts

  • Sectional chart scale 1:500,000 inches
  • 1” on the chart = 8 nm on the ground
  • Each chart covers 8° of Longitude and 4° of Latitude
  • Named after a city on the chart
slide30

Aerospace Dimensions: Aeronautical Charts – Legend

Navigation Aids

Towers

Airports

Cities

Wildlife refuges

Water

ATC Airspace

Railroad

slide31

Aerospace Dimensions: Aeronautical Charts –Airport Info

NEIL ARMSTRONG – Airport Name

(AXV)– ICAO Airport Identifier

AWOS-3 128.325 – Automated Weather Observation Service frequency

913 – Elevation in feet Mean Sea Level (MSL)

*L – Lighted runway ( * = with some limitations)

55 – Length of longest runway in hundreds of feet

122.8 – Common Traffic Advisory Frequency

Rotating Beacon

Uncontrolled Airport - MAGENTA

Control Tower Airport - BLUE

CUYAHOGA CO – Airport Name

(CGF) – ICAO Airport Identifier

CT - 118.5* – Control Tower Frequency (* means not 24hr)

879 – Elevation in feet MSL

*L– Lighted runway ( * = with some limitations)

51– Length of longest runway in hundreds of feet

122.95– Unicom for FBO

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