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Chapter 7. The Integumentary System. Integumentary system functions:. Protection Excretion Temperature maintenance Insulation and cushion Vitamin D3 synthesis Sensory detection. The integumentary system consists of. Cutaneous membrane Epidermis Dermis Accessory structures

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Chapter 7

Chapter 7

The Integumentary System


Integumentary system functions
Integumentary system functions:

  • Protection

  • Excretion

  • Temperature maintenance

  • Insulation and cushion

  • Vitamin D3 synthesis

  • Sensory detection


The integumentary system consists of
The integumentary system consists of

  • Cutaneous membrane

    • Epidermis

    • Dermis

  • Accessory structures

  • Subcutaneous layer

    • It is not part of the integumentary system

    • It separates the integumentary system from the deep fascia

    • Also known as hypodermis and superficial fascia




Cells of the epidermis
Cells of the epidermis

  • Keratinocytes

    • Most abundant

    • Produce keratin

      • Fibrous protein that makes the epidermis though and water resistant

  • Melanocytes

    • Secretes melanin

      • Protects the cell against UV rays

    • freckles


Cells of the epidermis1
Cells of the epidermis

  • Langerhan’s cells

    • Cells that belong to the immune system

  • Merkel cells

    • Merkel discs = Merkel cell + nerve ending

    • Sense of touch


Layers of the epidermis
Layers of the epidermis:

  • Stratum germinativum or basale

  • Stratum spinosum

  • Stratum granulosum

  • Stratum lucidum

  • Stratum corneum



Stratum germinativum basale
Stratum Germinativum (basale)

  • Single row of cells

  • Forms epidermal ridges

  • Basal or germinative cells

  • Merkel cells (touch)

  • Melanocytes



Stratum spinosum
Stratum Spinosum

  • Prickle cells

  • Several layers of cells

  • Cells held together by desmosomes

  • Presence of Langerhan’s cells

  • Cells contain pre-keratin


Stratum granulosum
Stratum Granulosum

  • 3 to 5 layers of keratinocytes

  • No cell divisions

  • Lamellated granules

    • Contain a water resistant glycolipid that reaches the extracellular space

  • Keratohyalin granules

    • Combine with the intermediate filaments to form keratin that will make the skin stronger


Stratum lucidum clear layer
Stratum lucidum (clear layer)

  • Dead keratinocytes

  • Flat cells

  • In thick skin


Stratum corneum
Stratum corneum

  • Outmost layer

  • 20-30 layers of cells

  • Dead cells

  • Cytoplasm filled with keratin

  • Constantly shedding and replaced



Dermal layers
Dermal layers

  • Papillary layer

    • Contains blood vessels, lymphatics

    • Free nerve endings

    • Meissner corpuscles (touch, pressure)

    • Loose areolar connective tissue

    • Presence of dermal papillae

      • Produce fingerprints

        • Genetically determined




Dermal layers1
Dermal layers

  • Reticular Layer

    • Dense irregular connective tissue

    • Fewer cells

    • Contains network of collagen and elastic fibers to resist tension

    • Sweat and sebaceous glands

    • Rich blood supply

    • Hair follicles

    • Pacinian corpuscles (deep pressure)


Dermis
Dermis

  • Both layers are rich in collagen and elastic fibers

  • Numerous fibroblasts, adipocytes, macrophages

  • Richly vascularized

    • Regulation of body temperature

    • Decubitus ulcers


Skin color depends on
Skin color depends on

  • Blood supply

  • Carotene

    • Present in the s.corneum and hipodermis

  • Melanin


Abnormal skin color
Abnormal skin color

  • Flushed

    • Fever, hypertension

  • Pale

  • Jaundice

  • Cyanoses



Nails
Nails

  • Nail bodycovers the nail bed

  • Nail production occurs at the nail matrix

  • Eponychium (cuticle) overlies root

  • Free edge of nail extends over hyponychium

  • Lunula

  • Root

  • Nail folds



Hairs
Hairs

  • Originate in hair follicle

  • Composed of rootand shaft

  • Root base (hair papilla) surrounded by hair bulb and root hair plexus

  • Cuticle = superficial dead protective layer

  • Cortex

  • Medulla


Hair

  • Follicle

    • Epidermal layer

      • Internal epithelial root sheath

      • External epithelial root sheath

    • Glassy membrane

    • Connective root sheath

    • Papilla

      • Blood vessels enter the hair


Hair

  • Arrector pili muscle

    • Smooth muscle

    • When contracted cause dimpling of the skin


Cutaneous glands
Cutaneous Glands

  • Sebaceous

  • Sudoriferous


Sebaceous glands
Sebaceous glands

  • Discharge waxy sebum onto hair follicle or on the skin surface

  • Not present on palms and soles

  • Sebum

    • Oil + dead cells

    • Keep skin and hair moist

    • Black head

    • Acne



Sudoriferous glands
Sudoriferous glands

  • Apocrine sweat glands

    • Axilla and genital areas

    • Begin secretion at puberty

    • Produce odorous secretion rich in protein and fat

  • Merocrine(eccrine) sweat gland

    • All over the body

    • Regulates body temperature

    • Sweat or perspiration

      • Water, salt, urea



Fingerprint
Fingerprint

  • Impressions caused by

    • Ink, sweat, oil, blood,etc

  • Patterns

    • Archs

    • Loops

    • whorls


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