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Chapter 3. Intercultural Communication. Chapter 3. Increasing Importance of Intercultural Communication Globalization of markets Technological advancements Global connectivity Intercultural workforce. Chapter 3. Globalization of Markets

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Chapter 3

Chapter 3

Intercultural Communication


Chapter 31
Chapter 3

  • Increasing Importance of Intercultural Communication

    • Globalization of markets

    • Technological advancements

    • Global connectivity

    • Intercultural workforce


Chapter 32
Chapter 3

  • Globalization of Markets

    • Mergers, acquisitions, buy-outs stir growth beyond national boundaries

      • Anheuser-Busch

      • Chrysler Corporation

    • American companies in global markets must adapt to other cultures

    • New trade agreements, declining domestic markets drive global markets


Chapter 33
Chapter 3

  • Technological Advancements and Global Interconnectivity

    • Development of new transportation and information technologies fuel explosive growth in global markets

    • Internet and Web—changing the way we live, communicate, and do business


Chapter 34
Chapter 3

  • Expanding Intercultural Workforce

    • Immigration makes intercultural communication increasingly necessary

    • Business communicators must learn to adapt to an intercultural workforce and multinational companies


Chapter 35
Chapter 3

  • Characteristics of Culture

    • Culture is learned

    • Cultures are inherently logical

    • Culture is the basis of self-identity and community

    • Culture combines the visible and invisible

    • Culture is dynamic


Chapter 36
Chapter 3

  • Dimensions of Culture

    • Context

    • Individualism

    • Formality

    • Communication style

    • Time orientation


Chapter 37
Chapter 3

  • Context

    • Low-context cultures tend to be logical, linear, and action-oriented

    • High-context cultures tend to be relational, collectivist, intuitive, and contemplative


Chapter 38
Chapter 3

  • Individualism

    • High-context cultures tend to prefer group values, duties, and decisions

    • Low-context cultures tend to prefer individual initiative, self-assertion, and personal achievement


Chapter 39
Chapter 3

  • Formality

    • Some cultures may prefer greater formality in dress, speech, and social interaction

    • North Americans place less emphasis on tradition, ceremony, and social rules


Chapter 310
Chapter 3

  • Communication Style

    • High-context cultures rely on nonverbal cues and the total picture to communicate

    • Meanings are embedded at many sociocultural levels

    • Low-context cultures emphasize words, directness, and openness

    • People tend to be informal, impatient, and literal


Chapter 311
Chapter 3

  • Time Orientation

    • Time is precious to North Americans

    • Time correlates with productivity, efficiency, and money

    • Time is seen as unlimited and never-ending in some cultures

    • South Americans have a more relaxed concept of time


Chapter 312
Chapter 3

  • High- to low-context cultures

    • Japanese

    • Arab

    • Latin American

    • Spanish

    • English

    • Italian

    • French

    • North American

    • Scandinavian

    • German

    • Swiss


Chapter 313
Chapter 3

  • How We Form Judgments

    • An oversimplified behavioral pattern applied uncritically to groups

    • A mental representation based on characteristics that are flexible and open to new definitions

    • A rigid attitude based on erroneous beliefs or preconceptions


Chapter 314
Chapter 3

  • Techniques to Broaden Your Intercultural Competence

    • Descriptiveness—giving descriptive feedback instead of judgmental feedback

    • Nonjudgmentalism—being tolerant, which helps prevent defensive reactions

    • Supportiveness—encouraging others with head nods, eye contact, and facial expressions


Chapter 315
Chapter 3

  • Intercultural proficiency. . .

    • Requires a conscious effort

    • Leads to more satisfying relationships

    • Makes work life more productive, gratifying, and effective

    • Reduces ethnocentric reactions


Chapter 316
Chapter 3

  • Techniques for Bridging the Gap Between Cultures

    • Tolerance—being open-minded and empathetic

    • Helping others save face—raising their social standing through positive comments

    • Patience—letting others express their thoughts without finishing their sentences for them


Chapter 317
Chapter 3

  • Improving Oral Communication with Intercultural Audiences

    • Learn foreign phrases

    • Use simple English

    • Speak slowly and enunciate clearly

    • Observe eye messages

    • Encourage accurate feedback

    • Check frequently for comprehension

    • Accept blame

    • Listen without interrupting

    • Smile when appropriate

    • Follow up in writing


Chapter 318
Chapter 3

  • Improving Your Written Communication with Intercultural Audiences

    • Consider local styles

    • Observe titles and rank

    • Use short sentences and short paragraphs

    • Avoid ambiguous expressions

    • Strive for clarity

    • Use correct grammar

    • Cite numbers carefully

    • Accommodate readers in organization, tone, and style


Chapter 319
Chapter 3

  • How to Make Ethical Decisions

    • Broaden your view of other cultures

    • Avoid reflex judgments

    • Find alternatives

    • Refuse business if options violate your basic values

    • Embrace transparency

    • Don’t rationalize shady decisions

    • Resist legalistic strategies


Chapter 320
Chapter 3

  • Tips for Improving Communication Among Diverse Workplace Audiences

    • Seek training

    • Understand the value of differences

    • Don’t expect conformity

    • Learn about your cultural self

    • Make fewer assumptions

    • Build on similarities


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