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Chapter 3. Intercultural Communication. Chapter 3. Increasing Importance of Intercultural Communication Globalization of markets Technological advancements Global connectivity Intercultural workforce. Chapter 3. Globalization of Markets

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chapter 3

Chapter 3

Intercultural Communication

chapter 31
Chapter 3
  • Increasing Importance of Intercultural Communication
    • Globalization of markets
    • Technological advancements
    • Global connectivity
    • Intercultural workforce
chapter 32
Chapter 3
  • Globalization of Markets
    • Mergers, acquisitions, buy-outs stir growth beyond national boundaries
      • Anheuser-Busch
      • Chrysler Corporation
    • American companies in global markets must adapt to other cultures
    • New trade agreements, declining domestic markets drive global markets
chapter 33
Chapter 3
  • Technological Advancements and Global Interconnectivity
    • Development of new transportation and information technologies fuel explosive growth in global markets
    • Internet and Web—changing the way we live, communicate, and do business
chapter 34
Chapter 3
  • Expanding Intercultural Workforce
    • Immigration makes intercultural communication increasingly necessary
    • Business communicators must learn to adapt to an intercultural workforce and multinational companies
chapter 35
Chapter 3
  • Characteristics of Culture
    • Culture is learned
    • Cultures are inherently logical
    • Culture is the basis of self-identity and community
    • Culture combines the visible and invisible
    • Culture is dynamic
chapter 36
Chapter 3
  • Dimensions of Culture
    • Context
    • Individualism
    • Formality
    • Communication style
    • Time orientation
chapter 37
Chapter 3
  • Context
    • Low-context cultures tend to be logical, linear, and action-oriented
    • High-context cultures tend to be relational, collectivist, intuitive, and contemplative
chapter 38
Chapter 3
  • Individualism
    • High-context cultures tend to prefer group values, duties, and decisions
    • Low-context cultures tend to prefer individual initiative, self-assertion, and personal achievement
chapter 39
Chapter 3
  • Formality
    • Some cultures may prefer greater formality in dress, speech, and social interaction
    • North Americans place less emphasis on tradition, ceremony, and social rules
chapter 310
Chapter 3
  • Communication Style
    • High-context cultures rely on nonverbal cues and the total picture to communicate
    • Meanings are embedded at many sociocultural levels
    • Low-context cultures emphasize words, directness, and openness
    • People tend to be informal, impatient, and literal
chapter 311
Chapter 3
  • Time Orientation
    • Time is precious to North Americans
    • Time correlates with productivity, efficiency, and money
    • Time is seen as unlimited and never-ending in some cultures
    • South Americans have a more relaxed concept of time
chapter 312
Chapter 3
  • High- to low-context cultures
    • Japanese
    • Arab
    • Latin American
    • Spanish
    • English
    • Italian
    • French
    • North American
    • Scandinavian
    • German
    • Swiss
chapter 313
Chapter 3
  • How We Form Judgments
    • An oversimplified behavioral pattern applied uncritically to groups
    • A mental representation based on characteristics that are flexible and open to new definitions
    • A rigid attitude based on erroneous beliefs or preconceptions
chapter 314
Chapter 3
  • Techniques to Broaden Your Intercultural Competence
    • Descriptiveness—giving descriptive feedback instead of judgmental feedback
    • Nonjudgmentalism—being tolerant, which helps prevent defensive reactions
    • Supportiveness—encouraging others with head nods, eye contact, and facial expressions
chapter 315
Chapter 3
  • Intercultural proficiency. . .
    • Requires a conscious effort
    • Leads to more satisfying relationships
    • Makes work life more productive, gratifying, and effective
    • Reduces ethnocentric reactions
chapter 316
Chapter 3
  • Techniques for Bridging the Gap Between Cultures
    • Tolerance—being open-minded and empathetic
    • Helping others save face—raising their social standing through positive comments
    • Patience—letting others express their thoughts without finishing their sentences for them
chapter 317
Chapter 3
  • Improving Oral Communication with Intercultural Audiences
    • Learn foreign phrases
    • Use simple English
    • Speak slowly and enunciate clearly
    • Observe eye messages
    • Encourage accurate feedback
    • Check frequently for comprehension
    • Accept blame
    • Listen without interrupting
    • Smile when appropriate
    • Follow up in writing
chapter 318
Chapter 3
  • Improving Your Written Communication with Intercultural Audiences
    • Consider local styles
    • Observe titles and rank
    • Use short sentences and short paragraphs
    • Avoid ambiguous expressions
    • Strive for clarity
    • Use correct grammar
    • Cite numbers carefully
    • Accommodate readers in organization, tone, and style
chapter 319
Chapter 3
  • How to Make Ethical Decisions
    • Broaden your view of other cultures
    • Avoid reflex judgments
    • Find alternatives
    • Refuse business if options violate your basic values
    • Embrace transparency
    • Don’t rationalize shady decisions
    • Resist legalistic strategies
chapter 320
Chapter 3
  • Tips for Improving Communication Among Diverse Workplace Audiences
    • Seek training
    • Understand the value of differences
    • Don’t expect conformity
    • Learn about your cultural self
    • Make fewer assumptions
    • Build on similarities
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