Module 2. Research Strategies. Scientific Method. A method of learning about the world through the application of critical thinking and tools such as observation, experimentation, and statistical analysis. Scientific Method. Formulating the Question Developing a Hypothesis
A method of learning about the world through the application of critical thinking and tools such as observation, experimentation, and statistical analysis
Research Bias: A tendency for researchers to engage in behaviors and selectively notice evidence that supports their hypothesis or expectations.
Participant Bias: A tendency for research participants to respond in a certain way because they know they are being observed or they believe they know what the researcher wants.
Naturalistic Observation - Studying subjects without their being ware that they are being watched.
Correlation Study: A research project designed to discover the degree to which tow variables are related to each other.
Interviews - Studying people face to face and asking questions.
Case Study Method - Research that collects lengthy, detailed information about a person’s background, usually for psychological treatment.
Psychological testing - Objective method for observation and measurement of subjects in various areas, such as intelligence. (IQ test)
Cross-sectional Method - Looks at different age groups at the same time in order to understand changes that occur during the life span.
Longitudinal Method - Studies the same group of people over an extended period of time.
Do no harm
Ensure that participation is voluntary
Remove any misconceptions caused by deception (debrief)
Provide results and interpretations to participants
Accurately describe risks to potential subjects
Many psychologist are simply interested in animal behavior.
There are biological and behavioral similarities between animals and humans.
Since many species of animals develop more rapidly and there for have shorter life spans than humans do, we can study genetic effects over generations much more rapidly in animals than in humans.
It is often possible to exercise more control over experiments with animals than is the case with humans
Procedures that are not ethical to perform on humans may be considered acceptable when performed on animals