Communication systems protocol hardware configurations network
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 47

Communication Systems, Protocol, Hardware Configurations, Network PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 93 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Communication Systems, Protocol, Hardware Configurations, Network. PSTI, Bangalore. Introduction – Outline of Presentation. Communication Requirement of Communication Basics of Communication Communication network Communication Media PLCC VSAT Microwave Fiber Optics

Download Presentation

Communication Systems, Protocol, Hardware Configurations, Network

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Communication systems protocol hardware configurations network

Communication Systems, Protocol, Hardware Configurations, Network

PSTI, Bangalore


Introduction outline of presentation

Introduction – Outline of Presentation

  • Communication

    • Requirement of Communication

    • Basics of Communication

    • Communication network

    • Communication Media

      • PLCC

      • VSAT

      • Microwave

      • Fiber Optics

  • Communication Protocols

  • Hardware Configuration


Requirement

Requirement

  • Administrative

  • Telemetry – SCADA

  • Special Protection Schemes

  • SMART Grid Technology

  • Line Protection

  • HVDC implementation


Choice

Choice

  • High Reliability - Min. loss of communication; Select proper hardware etc.

  • High Availability - Proper selection of media; alternate routing, stand by etc.

  • Rapid response - Update time in specified limits.

  • Transparency - Compatibility with other systems.

  • Flexibility - Absorb future changes, additions, etc.

  • Maintainability - Minimum demand on maintenance


Communication systems protocol hardware configurations network

D TS

SERVER

ICCP

COMMUNICATION

SERVER

ISR

SERVER

WORKSTATION

BASED

OPERATOR

CONSOLE

WITH TWO CRT

ROUTER

Scada/EMS system

SCADA /EMS

SERVER

JUKE

BOX

LAN 1

FROM GPS

LAN 2

NMS

CONSOLE

TIME SYNCH

SYSTEM

TERMINAL SERVER

OPRATION

SCHEDULING

CONSOLE

DUAL CFE

COMMUNICATION

FRONT END

PROCESSOR

COMMUNICATION

FRONT END

PROCESSOR

PERIPHERALS

SPLITTER

TO OTHER CONTROL CENTERS

VIDEO PROJECTION SYSTEM

MIMIC CONTROL BOARD

MODEM

CHENNEL 2X64KBPS

TO RTUs


Communication network

Communication Network


Communication network1

Communication Network

C

F

E

Communication trough single medium

P

L

C

C

COAXIALCABLE

DATA

SERVERS

P

L

C

C

MODEM

Master Station

PLCC ROOM

R

T

U

P

L

C

C

PLCC

COAX

CABLE

MODEM

RTU

PLCC ROOM


Monitoring and control system

Monitoring and Control System

Master Station Computer System

Communication Channel

Interface Devices

A/D Converter

Interface Devices

A/D Converter

Sensor/Transducer

Relays

Sensor/Transducer

Relays

Power systems


Analog to digital conversion

Analog to Digital Conversion

  • Sampling

    • According to the Nyquist 2 * fmax

  • Quantization and encoding


Communication network2

Communication Network

Communication trough multiple medium medium

C

F

E

M

U

X

Data Server

F. O. / MW

Master Station

WIDE BAND

P

L

C

C

M

U

X

R

T

U

P

L

C

C

PLCC

COAX

CABLE

COAX

CABLE

MODEM

MODEM

PLCC

ROOM

PLCC ROOM

RTU


Communication network3

Communication Network

Communication Channel Configuration

M

A

S

T

E

R

S

T

A

T

I

O

N

POINT TO POINT

C

C

SERIES

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

SERIES STAR

C

C

C

C

C

C

LOOP

C

C

C

C


Modulation technique

Modulation Technique

  • Modulation

    • Amplitude modulation ( PAM )

      • Frequency of carrier fiixed

      • Varying Amplitude

      • Higher Noise

    • Frequency modulation ( FSK )

      • Frequency of the carrier varied

      • Amplitude not varied

      • Less noise

    • Phase modulation ( PSK )

      • Phase of the carrier is varied

      • Amplitude not varied

      • Low Noise

    • Quadrature Amplitude Modulation ( QAM )

      • Split into two signal

      • Added with a phase shift of 90 deg

Amplitude Modulation

Frequency Modulation

Phase Modulation


Multiplexing

Multiplexing

  • Multiplexing

    • Time Division Multiplexing ( TDM )

      • Separate Time slot is allotted

      • Advantages

        • It uses a single links

        • It does not require precise carrier matching at both end of the links.

        • Use of capacity is high.

        • Easy to expand the number of users at a low cost.

        • No need to include identification of the traffic stream on each packet.

    • Frequency Division Multiplexing ( FDM )

      • Separate Carrier Is allotted

      • Advantages

        • Here user can be added to the system by simply adding another pair of transmitter modulator and receiver demodulators.

        • FDM system support full duplex information flow which is required by most of application.

        • Noise problem for analog communication has lesser effect

    • Wave Division Multiplexing ( WDM )

      • Separate Wavelength is allotted


Higher order multiplexing

Higher Order Multiplexing

  • Synchronous digital multiplexers ( SDH )

    • Synchronous digital multiplexers have tributaries with the same clock frequency, and they are all synchronized to a master clock.

    • The basic building block is called the synchronous transport signal – level 1 ( STS – 1 ) if electrical and optical carrier level 1 ( OC – 1 ) if optical. The STS-1 has a 51.84 Mbps transmission rate and is synchronized to he network clock. The STS-1 frame structure has 90 columns and 9 rows.

  • Asynchronous digital multiplexers. ( PDH )

    • Asynchronous digital multiplexers has tributaries which have the same nominal frequency (that means there can be a small difference from one to another), but they are not synchronized to one another.

  • Multiplexing techniques

    • Bit by Bit multiplexing/interleaving

    • Word by Word multiplexing / interleaving.


System layers

System Layers

SDH Network Management System

DWDM &

STM- 16

Backbone Layer

STM- 1/4 Transport Layer

PDH Network Management System

Primary Access Layer

(< 2Mbit/s)

Voice Circuits &

Data Circuits

FIBRE OPTIC CABLE & MICROWAVE RADIO


Plesiochronous digital hierarchy pdh

140 Mbit/s

MUX

140 Mbit/s

MUX

34 Mbit/s

MUX

34 Mbit/s

MUX

8 Mbit/s

MUX

8 Mbit/s

MUX

2 Mbit/s

MUX

2 Mbit/s

MUX

Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy ( PDH )

  • Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchies

    • Primary Order - 2 Mbit/s (2,048 Kbit/s)

      • 30 x 64 Kbit/s Channels

    • Second Order - 8 Mbit/s (8,448 Kbit/s)

      • 4 x 2Mbit/s Tributaries

      • 120 x 64 Kbit/s Channels

    • Third Order - 34 Mbit/s (34,368 Kbit/s)

      • 16 x 2Mbit/s Tributaries

      • 480 x 64 Kbit/s Channels

    • Fourth Order - 140 Mbit/s (139,264 Kbit/s)

      • 64 x 2Mbit/s Tributaries

      • 1920 x 64 Kbit/s Channels


Sdh multiplexing structure

SDH Multiplexing Structure

  • Administrative Unit ( AU )

  • Virtual Container ( VC )

  • Container ( C )

  • Tributary units ( TU )

  • Tributary Unit Group ( TUG )


Transport frame formats 2 mbit s itu t g 704

Transport Frame Formats 2Mbit/s (ITU-T G.704)

  • The standard bandwidth of the voice channel in a digital transmission system is 300 – 3400 kHz.

  • A number of input signal / channels ( typically 24 or 30 ) are combined.

  • Combined in a frame and Multi-frame

    • Input signal / Data

    • Frame alignment word

    • Service bits

    • Signaling bits


Communication systems protocol hardware configurations network

LDCA

TAX

LDCA

TAX

Bandwidth Capacity in 24F-OPGW Cable

DARK FIBRE PAIRS

FIBRE PAIRS TO BEUSED

Single pair

of fibres

SYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL

HIERARCHY (SDH)

Capacity

Voice

channels

Transport

Module

STM - 1 155 Mbps 1920

STM - 4 622 Mbps 7500

STM - 16 2.5 Gbps 30000

STM - 64 10.0 Gbps 120000

DWDM

N * 2.5N*2.5 Gbps N*30000

N *10N*10 GbpsN*120000

For example

32*2.5 80 Gbps 960000

32*10320 Gbps 3840000


Communication media

Communication Media


Power line carrier communication plcc

Power Line Carrier Communication ( PLCC )

  • HF Carrier Signal ranging from 30 kHz to 500 kHz

  • Mainly used for

    • a) Speech,

    • b) Tele-protection

    • c) Data Signal ( RTU ),

    • d) Meter data transfer,

    • e) Tele-Control

  • Disadvantages of PLCCs are:

    • a) Limited Bandwidth ( 4 kHz ),

    • b) Low speed of data transfer ( 1200 baud ),

    • c) Separate battery supply for reliable DC supply,

    • d) Subjected to noise – high signal to noise ratio

    • e) problem of frequency allocation with highly messed networks

    • f) Depends on physical connectivity of Power lines – network expansion problem

    • g) Cannot be monitored from a centralized location.


Power line carrier communication plcc1

Power Line Carrier Communication ( PLCC )

  • Coupling devices are used for isolation of carrier equipment from the high tension voltage system and to provide a low impedance path for carrier frequency. Generally CVTs are used with LMU.

  • Wave traps are used to confine the carrier signals between the two carriers equipments located at the respective substation and to provide high impedance to carrier frequency. Rated for full current.


Power line carrier communication plcc2

Power Line Carrier Communication ( PLCC )

AUDIO

4KHz AUDIO BAND IS USED FOR TRANSMITTION VOICE & DATA.

VOICE 0.3 –2.0 KHz

DATA 2.1 – 3.4 KHZ

CARRIER FREQUENCY BAND

40 KHz - 500 KHz. HIGH FREQUENCY RANGE IS USED FOR CARRIER SIGNALS

SPEECH & DATA SIGNALS WILL BE TRANSMITTED IN THE 4KHz BANDWIDTH IN EACH DIRECTION OVER THE CARRIER.

Eg. WITH 100/104 KHz CARRIER FREQUENCY, THE TRANSMIT SIGNALS WILL BE 100-104 KHz AND RECEIVE SIGNALS WILL BE 104-108 KHz RANGE.


Vsat communication

Uplink

6 GHz

Downlink

4 GHz

HPA

LNA

Up Converter

Down Converter

C Band – 6/4GHz

Ku Band -14/12GHz

Ka Band – 30/20GHz

Satellite Modem

Satellite Modem

CPE

PSTN

CPE

PSTN

Receiving Earth

Station

Transmitting Earth

Station

VSAT Communication

Satellite Communication is a technology of data transmission whether one-way data broadcasting or two-way interactive using radio frequency as a medium.

It consists of:

  • Space Segment or Satellite

  • Ground Segment or earth station

    • Antenna,

    • Outdoor Unit,

    • Inter Facility Link,

    • Indoor Unit and

    • Customer Premises Equpt.

Feed Horn

RFT

HPA – High Power Amplifier, LNA- Low Noise Amplifier (Earth station equipment that amplifies the transmit RF signal. )

CPE – customer premises equipment ( eg. Telephone, PABX, Ethernet hub, host server, etc)


Vsat communication1

VSAT Communication

Antenna diameter : 0.6m – 3.8m

Traffic Capacity : 9.6kbps – 2Mbps

Frequency Bands : C-band (4-6Ghz) or

: Ku-Band (12-14Ghz)

: Ka-Band (30/20Ghz)

Use of satellite : Geo-stationary satellite

(36,000km above equator)

Network : Point-to-point

Configuration : Point-to-multipoint


Vsat communication technology

VSAT communication Technology

SCPC (Single-Carrier Per Channel

  • point-to-point

    Time-division multiple access (TDMA )

    • Share satellite resource on a time-slot basis

      Frequency Division Multiple Access ( FDMA )

    • Pre-Assigned Multiple Access ( PAMA )

    • Demand Assigned Multiple Access ( DAMA )

    • Code Division Multiple Access ( CDMA )


Microwave communication

Microwave Communication

Microwave links provide hops of some ten or twenty kilometres.

Definition : λ= C * T = C / F

λ : wavelength in metres,

C : speed of light in metres per second,

F : frequency in Hertz,

T : period in seconds

C (speed of light) = 3 * 108 m/s.


Microwave communication1

Microwave Communication

  • Propagation Problem :

  • Roundness of Earth

  • Atmospheric Refraction

  • Defraction

  • Reflection

  • Due to Hydrometeors

Radius of first Fresnel ellipsoid: rmax = 0.5*√ ( λ*d )

d : distance between transmitter and receiver


Microwave communication2

Microwave Communication

Hot Standby Configuration ( HSB )

  • Standby equipment transmits at the same time as the active equipment.

  • A logic circuit manages detection of a transmitter fault. This type of switching is called errored switching.

  • In receive mode, the two receivers receive the same signal and process it in parallel The logic circuit uses the digital signal for switching. This type of switching is called errorless switching

Frequency Diversity Configuration

  • Frequency diversity protects signal propagation.

  • The system is expensive in terms of frequency bandwidth and equipment.

  • The signal forwarded to the terrestrial network is chosen in the same way as for the HSB configuration.


Microwave communication3

Microwave Communication

Frequency Diversity Configuration

  • Space diversity protects propagation against fading.

  • The diagram shows space diversity in one transmission direction. It can be symmetric. The receiver at the top is called the main receiver, and the bottom receiver is the diversity receiver. If a diversity transmitter is installed, it must be switched off.

  • The signal forwarded to the terrestrial network is chosen in the same way as for the HSB configuration


Fiber optic communication

Fiber Optic Communication

The Ray Model

The Wave Model

Incidence

When light travels from a less dense medium to a more dense medium i.e. when n1<n2 then the ray is refracted out of the boundary.

When light travels from a more dense medium to a less dense medium i.e. when n1>n2 then the ray is reflected inside the boundary.

Snell’s Law :


Fiber optic communication1

Fiber Optic Communication

Fiber optic cable functions as a "light guide," guiding the light introduced at one end of the cable through to the other end. The light source can either be a light-emitting diode (LED) or a laser. Using a lens, the light pulses are funneled into the fiber-optic medium where they travel down the cable.

  • The light (near infrared) is most often are used :

    • 850nm for shorter distances

    • 1,300nm for longer distances on Multi-mode fiber

    • 1300nm for single-mode fiber

    • 1,500nm is used for longer distances.


Fiber optic communication2

Fiber Optic Communication

Single Mode cable is a single stand of glass fiber with a diameter of 8.3 to 10 microns.  

Single Mode Fiber through which only one mode will propagate typically 1310 or 1550nm.

Data is sent at multi-frequency (WDM Wave-Division-Multiplexing) so only one cable is needed - (single-mode on one single fiber)

Multi-Mode cable has a little bit bigger diameter, with a common diameters in the 50-to-100 micron.

Most applications in which Multi-mode fiber is used, 2 fibers are used (WDM is not normally used on multi-mode fiber). 

Light waves are dispersed into numerous paths, or modes, as they travel through the cable's core typically 850 or 1300nm.


Fiber optic communication3

Fiber Optic Communication


Fiber optic communication4

Fiber Optic Communication

Attenuation

  • Scattering

  • Due to interactions of photons with fiber medium.

  • Absorption ( Intrinsic + Extrinsic )

  • Due to fiber itself ( Intrinsic )

  • Due to impurities of water and metal, such as iron, nickel and chromium (extrinsic).

  • Bending and Geometrical Imperfections

    • Due to physical stress on fiber.

    • Core-cladding interface irregularities, diameter variations etc.

      Dispersion

    • Intramodal Or Chromatic Dispersion

    • Propagation Delay in Various Spectral Components of the Transmitted Signal.

    • Intermodal Dispersion

    • Propagation Delay Between Various Modes, Mainly in Multimode Fibres.


A comparison

A Comparison


A comparison1

A Comparison


Communication protocol

Communication Protocol


Communication systems protocol hardware configurations network

CIM ?

Tele-protection ?

DMS ?


Protocol layers

Protocol Layers


Tele control protocols

Tele-Control Protocols

  • IEC 60870-5-101 protocol (from RTU to Control Center communication

  • IEC 60870-6-502 ( ICCP) protocol (between two Control Canters)

  • IEC 60870-5-103 protocol (for communication between IEDs in a Substation)

  • IEC 60870-5-104 protocol

  • MODBUS Protocol ( MFTs)

  • DNP 3.0 Protocol (Serial)---Master Station

  • DNP 3.0 Protocol (TCP/IP)---Master Station

  • IEC 61850 protocol (for Substation Automation)

  • The Present SCADA systems use

  • IEC 60870-5-101

  • IEC 60870-6-502


Iec 60870 5 101

IEC–60870–5-101

Physical Layer :

Information bit : 8 bit

Stop bit : 1

Parity bit : Even

Unbalanced

Request Message

(User Data, Confirm Expected)

Data Link Layer

Standard Frame Format : FT 1.2

Maximum Frame Length : 255 bytes

[P]

[S]

Slave

Master

Transmission Layer ( Station address field Length : 1 or 2 bytes )

Unbalanced Mode :

Transmitted messages are categorized on two priority classes( Class 1 & Class 2 )

Balanced Mode :

All the messages are sent, No categorization of Class 1 and Class 2

(Acknowledgment)

Response Message

[P]

Network Layer : Not defined as 870-5-101 is not IP based

Selection of ASDUs

ASDU 1 : Single point information

ASDU 2 : Single point information with time tag

ASDU 3 : Double point information

ASDU 4 : Double point information with time tag

ASDU 9 : Measured value, Normalised value

ASDU 10 : Measured value, Normalised value with time tag

ASDU 11 : Measured Value, Scaled value

ASDU 12 : Measured value, Scaled value with time tag

ASDU 100 : Interrogation Command

ASDU 103 : Clock Synchronisation Command

ASDU 120 - 126 : File transfer Command

(Request User Data)

Application Layer

The length of the header fields of the data structure are:

Station address 1 or 2 byte ( User defined )

ASDU Address : 1 or 2 bytes

Information Object address : 2 bytes

Cause of Transmission : 1 byte

[S]

(Respond User Data or NACK)

[P] = Primary Frame

[S] = Secondary Frame


Iccp protocol

ICCP Protocol

Associations

An application Association needs to be established between two ICCP instances before any data exchange can take place. Associations can be Initiated, Concluded or Aborted by the ICCP instances.

Bilateral Agreement and Table, Access Control

A Bilateral Agreement between two control-centers (say A and B) for data access. A Bilateral Table is a digital representation of the Agreement.

Data Values

Data Values are objects that represent the values of control-center objects including points (Analog, Digital and Controls) or data structures.

Data Sets

Data Sets are ordered-lists of Data Value objects that can be created locally by an ICCP server or on request by an ICCP client

Information Messages

Information Message objects are used to exchange text or other data between Control Centers.

Transfer Sets

Transfer Set objects are used for complex data exchange schemes to transfer Data Sets (all elements or a subset of the Data set elements) etc.

Devices

Devices are the ICCP objects that represent controllable objects in the control center.


Iccp protocol1

ICCP Protocol

Conformance Blocks

ICCP divides the entire ICCP functionality into 9 conformance block subsets. Implementations can declare the blocks that they provide support for, thus clearly specifying the level of ICCP supported by the implementation. Any ICCP implementation must necessarily support Block 1ca

Block 1 – Basic Services

Association, Data Value, Data Set, Data set transfer

Block 2 – Extended Data Set Condition Monitoring

Data Set Transfer Set Condition Monitoring

Object Change condition monitoring, Integrity Timeout condition monitoring

Block 3 – Blocked Transfers

Transfer Reports with Block data

Block 4 – Information Message

Information Message objects,

IMTransfer Set objects

Start Transfer

Stop Transfer

Data Set Transfer Set Condition Monitoring

Block 5 – Device Control

Device objects

Select, Operate, Get Tag, Set Tag, Timeout, Local Reset, Success, Failure

Block 6 to Block 9 are not generally implemented


Communication systems protocol hardware configurations network

SLDC

CPCC

Sub LDC

Repeater

Sub Station

Microwave

Optical cable

Underground Optical cable

Monitoring Center

JHARKHAND

Hatiya

220/132

Bodhgaya-

Lalganj

Muzaffarpur

ORISSA

Hajipur

Jeypore(PG)400/220

Manpur33

X

Y

Budhipadar

220/132

Kushai

Colony

220KV

Atri33

Fatwa

Total Hops:62

New Towers:51

Patna

Jayanagar

Rajgir-132

Bamra

Bokaro B

132 DVC

U/G

220KV

Bargaon33

Biharshariff

220/132

Biharshariff

400/220

Tower

#313

Jamui

Kutra33

Therubali

Chandil

220/132

SANTHALDIH

132(WBSEB)

Tarkera

220/132

220KV

Akusinghi

TOWER226

CTPS

132(DVC)

Maithon

SLDC-80

Rourkela(CS)

400/220

Kahalgaon

Narendrapur

Jamshedpur(CS)400/220

BIHAR

Kalyaneswari

Meeramandali

400/220/132

400KV

Khurda

220KV

TOWER

#194

Barkot

Mendhasal

400/220

Waria

132(DVC)

50M/SEC

47M/SEC

39M/SEC

220KV

Tower#146

15 km

Mejia

132(DVC)

Kalipahari

132(DVC)

TSTPS(CS)400

Chandaka

220/132

Durgapur(CS)400/220

Chainpal-132

7 km

Farakka(CS)400/220

Kamakhyanagar-132

132KV

PDT

Mathkargola -33

Backup route

Mankur

132-WBSEB

Duburi

220/132

Bhubaneshwar132

Burdwan

132-DVC

Jajpur Town

132

Naupada132

Chandikol

Belmuri

132-DVC

Maldah(CS)

400/220

Vidyut

Bhavan

NBU-132

PDT

Howrah

220/132

DVC

HQ

Legend

India Bhutan border

PDT

ERSCC

X

Y

CALCUTTA

Siliguri

WEST BENGAL

EASTERN REGION

WIDEBAND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM

Updated as on 19/09/2014

ERSCC


Communication systems protocol hardware configurations network

Thank You


  • Login