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Chapter 16 Psychological Disorders. Quiz. Social nonconformity is the failure to conform to societal norms or the usual minimum standards for social conduct, culturally specific. Mood disorder is a major disturbance in mood or emotion, such as depression or mania or bipolarity.

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Chapter 16 Psychological Disorders

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Chapter 16 Psychological Disorders


Quiz

  • Social nonconformity is the failure to conform to societal norms or the usual minimum standards for social conduct, culturally specific.

  • Mood disorder is a major disturbance in mood or emotion, such as depression or mania or bipolarity.

  • Schizophrenia means having a split personality

  • Everyone who experiences the same traumatic event will experience PTSD.

  • Once someone is diagnosed with a major mental health disorder, they are considered crazy and there is not much that can be done to help them.


What is Normal?

  • Psychopathology: Scientific study of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders; abnormal or maladaptive behavior

  • Subjective Discomfort: Subjective feelings of pain, unhappiness, or emotional distress

  • Statistical Abnormality: Having extreme scores on some dimension, such as intelligence, anxiety, or depression


What is Normal? Continued

  • Social Nonconformity: Disobeying societal standards for normal conduct; usually leads to destructive or self-destructive behavior

  • Situational Context: Social situation, behavioral setting, or general circumstances in which an action takes place

    • Is it normal to walk around strangers naked? If you are in a locker room and in the shower area, yes!


Cultural Relativity

  • Prepare a list of normal behaviors that involve interacting with other people

  • Who are they normal or abnormal for?

  • A man? A woman? A culture emphasizing passivity? A culture emphasizing aggression?

  • Judgments are made relative to the values of one’s culture


Fig. 16-1, p. 533


Statistical Abnormality

  • Estimate the number of parties you have attended in the last month.

  • Estimate the number of hours you have spent watching TV or using the computer (not for homework) in the last week

  • Estimate the number of hours you have spent with your family in the last week

  • What should define compulsive partying? Or other compulsive behavior?

  • What is the cutoff for being addicted to any of these behaviors?


Fig. 16-2, p. 536


Clarifying and Defining Abnormal Behavior (Mental Illness)

  • Maladaptive Behavior: Behavior that makes it difficult to function, to adapt to the environment, and to meet everyday demands

  • Mental Disorder: Significant impairment in psychological functioning

  • Those with mental illness lose the ability to adequately control thoughts, behaviors, or feelings


p. 533


General Risk Factors for Contracting Mental Illness

  • Social Conditions: Poverty, homelessness, overcrowding, stressful living conditions

  • Family Factors: Parents who are immature, mentally ill, abusive, or criminal; poor child discipline; severe marital or relationship problems

  • Psychological Factors: Low intelligence, stress, learning disorders

  • Biological Factors: Genetic defects or inherited vulnerabilities; poor prenatal care, head injuries, exposure to toxins, chronic physical illness, or disability


Insanity

  • Definition: A legal term; refers to an inability to manage one’s affairs or to be aware of the consequences of one’s actions

    • Those judged insane (by a court of law) are not held legally accountable for their actions

    • Can be involuntarily committed to a psychiatric hospital

    • Some movements today are trying to abolish the insanity plea and defense; desire to make everyone accountable for their actions

    • How accurate is the judgment of insanity?


Insanity

  • How do you define insanity?

  • DSM-IV TR definition: Interferes with daily functioning on the following 2 out of 5 of the following categories.

  • (page 312)

  • Legal Defense: When an accused person in a criminal prosecution to avoid liability for the commission of a crime because, at the time of the crime, the person did not appreciate the nature or quality or wrongfulness of the acts.


Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD)

  • A person who lacks a conscience (superego?); typically emotionally shallow, impulsive, selfish, and manipulative toward others

    • Oftentimes called psychopaths or sociopaths

  • Many are delinquents or criminals, but many are NOT crazed murderers displayed on television

  • Create a good first impression and are often charming

  • Cheat their way through life (e.g., Scott Peterson)


APD: Causes and Treatments

  • Possible Causes:

    • Childhood history of emotional deprivation, neglect, and physical abuse

    • Underarousal of the brain

  • Very difficult to effectively treat; will likely lie, charm, and manipulate their way through therapy


Anxiety-Based Disorders

  • Anxiety: Feelings of apprehension, dread, or uneasiness

  • Adjustment Disorders: When ordinary stress causes emotional disturbance and pushes people beyond their ability to effectively cope

    • Usually suffer sleep disturbances, irritability, and depression

    • Examples: Grief reactions, lengthy physical illness, unemployment


Panic Disorder without Agoraphobia

  • A chronic state of anxiety with brief moments of sudden, intense, unexpected panic (panic attack)

    • Panic Attack: Feels like one is having a heart attack, going to die, or is going insane

    • Symptoms include vertigo, chest pain, choking, fear of losing control


Specific Phobias

  • Irrational, persistent fears, anxiety, and avoidance that focus on specific objects, activities, or situations

  • People with phobias realize that their fears are unreasonable and excessive, but they cannot control them


Obsession

  • Recurring images or thoughts that a person cannot prevent

    • Cause anxiety and extreme discomfort

    • Enter into consciousness against the person’s will

    • Most common: Being dirty, wondering if you performed an action (turned off the stove), or violence (hit by a car)

    • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) : Extreme preoccupation with certain thoughts and compulsive performance of certain behaviors


Compulsion

  • Irrational acts that person feels compelled to repeat against his/her will

    • Help to control anxiety created by obsessions

    • Checkers and cleaners


Stress Disorders

  • Occur when stresses outside range of normal human experience cause major emotional disturbance

    • Symptoms: Reliving traumatic event repeatedly, avoiding stimuli associated with the event, and numbing of emotions


Acute Stress Disorder

  • Psychological disturbance lasting up to one month following stresses from a traumatic event

  • What does a nervous breakdown look like?

  • What has broken down?

  • What nerves are being referred to?


Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

  • Lasts more than one month after the traumatic event has occurred; may last for years

    • Typically associated with combat and violent crimes (rape, assault, etc.)

    • Terrorist attacks on September 11th, 2001, likely led to an increase of PTSD


Dissociative Disorders

  • Dissociative Amnesia: Inability to recall one’s name, address, or past

  • Dissociative Fugue: Sudden travel away from home and confusion about personal identity

    • Usually triggered by highly traumatic events


Split Personality

  • What does split personality mean?

  • What is split?

  • What would it look like?

  • How would you treat it?


Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

  • Person has two or more distinct, separate identities or personality states; previously known as Multiple Personality Disorder

    • “Sybil” or “The Three Faces of Eve” are good examples

    • Often begins with horrific childhood experiences (e.g., abuse, molestation, etc.)

    • Therapy often makes use of hypnosis

    • Goal: Integrate and fuse identities into single, stable personality


Hypochondriasis

  • Person is preoccupied with having a serious illness or disease

    • Interpret normal sensations and bodily signs as proof that they have a terrible disease

    • No physical disorder can be found


Somatization Disorder

  • Person expresses anxieties through numerous physical complaints

    • Many doctors are consulted but no organic or physical causes are found


Glove Anesthesia

  • Loss of skin sensitivity in areas normally covered by a glove


Theoretical Causes of Anxiety Disorders: Psychodynamic (Freud)

  • Anxiety caused by conflicts among id, ego, and superego

    • Forbidden id impulses for sex or aggression are trying to break into consciousness and thus influence behavior; person fears doing something crazy or forbidden

    • Superego creates guilt in response to these impulses

    • Ego gets overwhelmed and uses defense mechanisms to cope


Psychosis

  • Loss of contact with shared views of reality

  • Delusions: False beliefs that individuals insist are true, regardless of overwhelming evidence against them


Hallucinations

  • Imaginary sensations, such as seeing, hearing, or smelling things that do not exist in the real world

    • Most common psychotic hallucination is hearing voices

    • Note that olfactory hallucinations sometimes occur with seizure disorder (epilepsy)


Some More Psychotic Symptoms

  • Flat Affect: Lack of emotional responsiveness; face is frozen in blank expression

  • Disturbed Verbal Communication: Garbled and chaotic speech; word salad

  • Personality Disintegration: When an individual’s thoughts, actions, and no longer connected


Other Psychotic Disorders

  • Organic Psychosis: Psychosis caused by brain injury or disease

    • Dementia: Most common organic psychosis; serious mental impairment in old age caused by brain deterioration

    • Archaically known as senility


Alzheimer’s Disease

  • Symptoms include impaired memory, mental confusion, and progressive loss of mental abilities

    • Ronald Reagan most famous Alzheimer’s victim


p. 551


Fig. 16-5, p. 550


Delusional Disorders

  • Marked by presence of deeply held false beliefs (delusions)

    • May involve delusions of grandeur, persecution, jealousy, or somatic delusions

    • Experiences could really occur!

  • Paranoid Psychosis: Most common delusional disorder

    • Centers on delusions of persecution


Schizophrenia: The Most Severe Mental Illness

  • Psychotic disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, apathy, thinking abnormalities, and “split” between thoughts and emotions

    • Does NOT refer to having split or multiple personalities


Four Subtypes of Schizophrenia

  • Disorganized: Incoherence, grossly disorganized behavior, bizarre thinking, and flat or grossly inappropriate emotions

  • Catatonic: Marked by stupor, unresponsiveness, posturing, mutism, and sometimes, by agitated, purposeless behavior

  • Paranoid type: Preoccupation with delusions; also involves auditory hallucinations that are related to a single theme, especially grandeur or persecution

  • Undifferentiated: Any type of schizophrenia that does not have specific paranoid, catatonic, or disorganized features or symptoms


p. 553


Causes of Schizophrenia

  • Psychological Trauma: Psychological injury or shock, often caused by violence, abuse, or neglect

  • Disturbed Family Environment: Stressful or unhealthy family relationships, communication patterns, and emotional atmosphere

  • Deviant Communication Patterns: Cause guilt, anxiety, anger, confusion, and turmoil


p. 556


p. 556


p. 556


p. 556


Fig. 16-6, p. 554


Biochemical Causes of Schizophrenia

  • Biochemical Abnormality: Disturbance in brain’s chemical systems or in the brain’s neurotransmitters

  • Dopamine: Neurotransmitter involved with emotions and muscle movement

    • Works in limbic system

  • Dopamine overactivity in brain may be related to schizophrenia

  • Glutamate: A neurotransmitter; may also be involved


Fig. 16-7, p. 555


Fig. 16-8, p. 556


Schizophrenic Brain Images

  • Computed Tomography (CT) Scan: Computer enhanced X-ray of brain or body

  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Scan: Computer enhanced three-dimensional image of brain or body; based on magnetic field

    • MRIs show schizophrenic brains as having enlarged ventricles


Stress-Vulnerability Model

  • Combination of environmental stress and inherited susceptibility cause schizophrenic disorders


Mood Disorders

  • Major disturbances in emotion, such as depression or mania

  • Depressive Disorders: Sadness or despondency are prolonged, exaggerated, or unreasonable

  • Bipolar Disorders: Involve both depression and mania or hypomania

  • Dysthymic Disorder: Moderate depression that lasts for at least two years

  • Cyclothymic Disorder: Moderate manic and depressive behavior that lasts for at least two years


Major Mood Disorders

  • Lasting extremes of mood or emotion and sometimes with psychotic features (hallucinations, delusions)

  • Major Depressive Disorder: A mood disorder where the person has suffered one or more intense episodes of depression; one of the more serious mood disorders


Bipolar Disorders

  • Bipolar I Disorder: Person experiences extreme mania and deep depression

    • Mania: Excited, hyperactive, energetic, grandiose behavior

  • Bipolar II Disorder: Person is mainly sad but has one or more hypomanic episodes (mild mania)


Postpartum Depression

  • Moderately severe depression that begins within three months following childbirth

    • Marked by mood swings, despondency, feelings of inadequacy, and an inability to cope with the new baby

    • May last from two months to one year

    • Part of the problem may be hormonal


Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

  • Depression that only occurs during fall and winter

    • May be related to reduced exposure to sunlight

    • Phototherapy: Extended exposure to bright light to treat SAD


Fig. 16-12, p. 561


Other Psychological Disorders

  • Substance Related Disorders: Abuse or dependence on a mind- or mood-altering drug, like alcohol or cocaine

    • Person cannot stop using the substance and may suffer withdrawal symptoms if they do

  • Sexual and Gender Identity Disorder: Problems with sexual identity, deviant sexual behavior, or sexual adjustment

  • Neurosis: Archaic; once used to refer to anxiety, somatoform, dissociative disorders, and to some forms of depression (as a whole group)


Mentally Healthy?

What does it mean to be mentally healthy?

What are the basic attributes?

How can we discuss psychopathology (problems) without a thorough understanding of health?

For example: Jahoda’s list:

Accurate self concept, self awareness and self acceptance

Self actualization, full use of potential

Autonomy

Integration, a coherent outlook on life

Accurate perceptions of reality and social sensitivity

Competence and mastery of the environment


Deviant Behavior

  • You get the chance to observe deviant behavior in action.

  • In groups of 3, one of you will be the deviant behaver, and the other 2 will be the observers.

  • Go out in the building, or surrounding areas and do something that is not “normal”

  • The observers will report how your behavior was responded to by other people

  • Don’t do anything entirely inappropriate, offensive or that would get yourself or me into trouble

  • See page 533 in your textbooks for an example


Deviant Discussion

  • Reactions of the unsuspecting to the “deviant”

  • Negative sanctions applied by the subjects

  • Feelings of students before, during and after event

  • What does it mean to be normal or abnormal? Are your thoughts different now than they were in the beginning of class?


  • file:///E:/Media/Videos/chapter16/index.html


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