Slide 1 Advanced telecommunications for wireless systemsInvestigating OFDM by MathCAD

Timo Korhonen, Communications Laboratory, TKK

Slide 2 ### Motto

- If you tell me – I forget
- If you show me – I will remember
- If you involve me – I can understand- a Chinese proverb

Slide 3 ### Topics

- The objective of workshop OFDM module is to get familiar with OFDM physical level by using MathCAD for system studies.
- Topics:
- OFDM Signal in time and frequency domain
- Channel model and associated effects to OFDM
- Windowing
- Cyclic prefix
- Peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR)
- OFDM transceiver
- Water-pouring principle
- System modeling: Constellation diagram, error rate
- System impairments

Slide 4 ### References for exercises

- http://site.ebrary.com/lib/otaniemi
- Bahai, Ahmad R. S: Multi-Carrier Digital Communications : Theory and Applications of OFDM
- Hara, Shinsuke: Multicarrier Techniques for 4G Mobile Communications
- Prasad, Ramjee: OFDM for Wireless Communications Systems
- Xiong, Fuqin: Digital Modulation Techniques. Norwood, MA, USA

- www.wikipedia.com

Slide 5 ### Exercise: Using MathCAD

- Plot the sinc-function
- Create a script to create and draw a rectangle waveform.
- Demonstrate usage of FFT by drawing a sin-wave and its spectra.
- Determine Fourier-series coefficients of a sinusoidal wave and plot the wave using these coefficients
- Prepare a list of problems/solutions encountered in your tasks.

Slide 7 Slide 8 Spectra of a sinus wave.mcd

Slide 9 Fourier transformation of a sinusoidal wave.mcd

Slide 10 ### Introduction

Slide 11 ### Background

- Objectives: High capacity and variable bit rate information transmission with high bandwidth efficiency
- Limitations of radio environment, also Impulse / narrow band noise
- Traditional single carrier mobile communication systems do not perform well if delay spread is large. (Channel coding and adaptive equalization can be still improve system performance)

Slide 12 ### OFDM

- Each sub-carrier is modulated at a very low symbol rate, making the symbols much longer than the channel impulse response.
- Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) applied for multi-carrier modulation.
- The DFT exhibits the desired orthogonality and can be implemented efficiently through the fast fourier transform (FFT) algorithm.

Slide 13 ### Basic principles

- The orthogonality of the carriers means that each carrier has an integer number of cycles over a symbol period.
- Reception by integrate-and-dump-receiver
- Compact spectral utilization (with a high number of carriers spectra approaches rectangular-shape)
- OFDM systems are attractive for the way they handle ISI and ICI, which is usually introduced by frequency selective multipath fading in a wireless environment. (ICI in FDM)

Slide 14 ### Drawbacks of OFDM

- The large dynamic range of the signal, also known as the peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR).
- Sensitivity to phase noise, timing and frequency offsets (reception)
- Efficiency gains reduced by guard interval. Can be compensated by multiuser receiver techniques (increased receiver complexity)

Slide 15 Examples of OFDM-systems

- OFDM is used (among others) in the following systems:
- IEEE 802.11a&g (WLAN) systems
- IEEE 802.16a (WiMAX) systems
- ADSL (DMT = Discrete MultiTone) systems
- DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting)
- DVB-T (Digital Video Broadcasting)

OFDM is spectral efficient, but not power efficient (due to linearity requirements of power amplifier=the PAPR-problem).

OFDM is primarily a modulation method; OFDMA is the corresponding multiple access scheme.

Slide 17 ### OFDM Signal

Slide 18 ### Multiplexing techniques

Slide 20 OFDM signal in time domain

OFDM TX signal = Sequence of OFDM symbols gk(t) consisting of serially converted complex data symbols

The k:th OFDM symbol (in complex LPE form) is

where N = number of subcarriers, TG + TS= symbol period with the guard interval, and an,k is the complex data symbol modulating the n:th subcarrier during the k:th symbol period.

In summary, the OFDM TX signal is serially converted IFFT of complex data symbols an,k

Slide 21 Orthogonality of subcarriers

Definition:

Orthogonality over the FFT interval:

Phase shift in any subcarrier - orthogonality over the FFT interval should still be retained:

Slide 24 ### Exercise: Orthogonality

- Create a MathCAD script to investigate orthogonality of two square waves
- #1 Create the rect-function
- #2 Create a square wave using #1
- #3 Create a square wave with a time offset
- #4 Add the waves and integrate

Slide 26 ### Exercise: Orthogonality of OFDM signals

- Create and plot an OFDM signal in time domain and investigate when your subcarriers are orthogonal
- #1 Create a function to generate OFDM symbol with multiple subcarriers
- #2 Create a function to plot comparison of two subcarriers orthogonality (parameter is the frequency difference between carriers)

- Note: also phase continuity required in OFDM symbol boarders
- #3 Inspect the condition for orthogonality and phase continuity

Slide 27 Slide 29 ### OFDM Spectra

Slide 30 OFDM in frequency domain

TG

TFFT

Square-windowed sinusoid in time domain

=>

"sinc" shaped subchannel spectrum in frequency domain

See also A.13 in Xiong, Fuqin. Digital Modulation Techniques.

Norwood, MA, USA: Artech House, Incorporated, 2006. p 916.

http://site.ebrary.com/lib/otaniemi/Doc?id=10160973&ppg=932

Slide 31 Spectra for multiple carrier

Single subchannel

OFDM spectrum

Subcarrier spacing = 1/TFFT

Spectral nulls at other subcarrier frequencies

Slide 32 Next carrier goes here!

http://www.eng.usf.edu/wcsp/OFDM_links.html

Slide 34 ### Exercise: Analytical spectra

- Draw the spectra of OFDM signal by starting its frequency domain presentation (the sinc-function). Plot the spectra also in log-scale
- #1 Plot three delayed sinc(x) functions in the range x = -1…2 such that you can note they phase align correctly to describe the OFDM spectra
- #2 Plot in the range from f = -20 to 20 Hz an OFDM spectra consisting of 13 carriers around f=0 in linear and log-scale

Slide 35 Slide 37 ### Exercise: Spectra modified

- Investigate a single OFDM carrier burst and its spectra by using the following script:
- How the spectra is changed if the
- Carrier frequency is higher
- Symbol length is altered

Slide 38 ### OFDM Spectra by MathCAD for a single carrier

ofdm spectra by rect windowed sinc.mcd

Slide 39 ### Spectral shaping by windowing

Slide 40 ### Exercise: Windowed spectra

- The next MathCAD script demonstrates effect of windowing in a single carrier.
- How the steepness of the windowing is adjusted?
- Why function win(x,q) is delayed by ½?
- Comment the script

Slide 41 burst windowing and ofdm spectra.mcd

Slide 43 ### Modeling OFDM Transmission

Slide 45 ### Transceiver

- Some processing is done on the source data, such as coding for correcting errors, interleaving and mapping of bits onto symbols. An example of mapping used is multilevel QAM.
- The symbols are modulated onto orthogonal sub-carriers. This is done by using IFFT
- Orthogonality is maintained during channel transmission. This is achieved by adding a cyclic prefix to the OFDM frame to be sent. The cyclic prefix consists of the L last samples of the frame, which are copied and placed in the beginning of the frame. It must be longer than the channel impulse response.

Slide 48 ### OFDM and FFT

http://www.eng.usf.edu/wcsp/OFDM_links.html ~ Aalborg-34-lecture13.pdf

Slide 49 ### Exercise: Constellation diagram of OFDM system

- Steps
- #1 create a matrix with complex 4-level QAM constellation points
- #2 create a random serial data stream by using outcome of #1. Plot them to a constellation diagram.
- #3 create complex AWGN channel noise. Calculate the SNR in the receiver.
- #4 form and plot the received complex noisy time domain waveform by IFFT (icfft-function)
- #5 detect outcome of #4 by FFT and plot the resulting constellation diagram

Slide 50 ### Exercise : Constellation diagram of OFDM

Ofdm system.mcd

Slide 52 ### Channel

Slide 53 ### Combating multipath channel

- Multipath prop. destroys orthogonality
- Requires adaptive receiver – channel sensing required (channel sounding by pilot tones or using cyclic extension)
- Remedies
- Cyclic extension (decreases sensitivity)
- Coding

- One can deal also without cyclic extension (multiuser detection, equalizer techniques)
- More sensitive receiver in general
- More complex receiver - more power consumed

Slide 54 Pilot allocation example

To be able to equalize the frequency response of a frequency selective channel, pilot subcarriers must be inserted at certain frequencies:

Pilot subcarriers at some, selected frequencies

Time

Between pilot subcarriers, some form of interpolation is necessary!

Frequency

Subcarrier of an OFDM symbol

Slide 55 Pilot allocation example cont.- A set of pilot frequencies

The Shannon sampling theorem must be satisfied, otherwise error-free interpolation is not possible:

maximum delay spread

Time

Frequency

Slide 56 ### Channel

- Path Loss
- Shadow Fading
- Multipath:
- Flat fading
- Doppler spread
- Delay spread

- Interference
- OFDM:
- Inter-symbol interference (ISI) – flat fading, sampling theorem must be fulfilled
- Inter-carrier interference (ICI) – multipath propagation (guard interval)

Slide 57 ### Multipath radio channel

Slide 58 *

*Spike distance depends on impulse response

Slide 59 ### Multipath channel model

Slide 60 ### Received signal

Pr: Received mean power

Gs: Shadow fading

Log r ~ Fast fading

Slide 61 ### Exercise: Modeling channel

- Create a MathCAD script to create artificial impulse and frequency response of a multipath channel (fast fading)
- #1 Create an array of complex AWGN
- #2 Filter output of #1 by exp(-5k/M) where M is the number of data points
- #3 Plot the time domain magnitude of #2

- Is this a Rayleigh or Rice fading channel?
- How to make it the other one than Rayleigh/ Rice
- #4 Plot #3 in frequency domain

Slide 62 Comment how realistic this simulation is? Rayleigh or Rice fading channel?

impulse response radio ch.mcd

Slide 63 ### Frequency response

Frequency response shown by swapping left-hand side of the fft

Slide 64 ### Exercise: Rayleigh distribution

- #1 create a Rayleigh distributed set of random numbers (envelope of complex Gaussian rv.)
- #2 plot the pdf of #1 (use the histogram-function)
- #3 add the theoretical pdf to #2

Slide 65 ### Rayleigh distribution

- Note that true pdf area equals unity, how could you adjust the above for this?

- Add comparison to the theoretical Rayleigh distribution!

Slide 66 ### Path loss

Slide 67 ### Shadow fading

N(0,s2): Log normal distribution

Slide 68 ### Doppler spread

Slide 69 DELAY SPREAD IN TIME DOMAIN

Small delay spread

Large delay spread

Slide 70 ### Delay spread in frequency domain

Slide 71 ### Exercise: Variable channel

- Discuss a model of a channel with flat/ frequency selective characteristics and report its effect to the received modulated wave
- Amplitude and phase spectra
- What happens to the received frequency components in
- Flat fading
- Frequency selective fading
- Time invariant / time variant channel
- Doppler effected channel

Slide 72 ### Exercise: ODFM in a multipath channel

- #1 Create an impulse response of 256 samples with nonzero values at h2=16, h10=4+9j, and h25= 10+3j and plot its magnitude spectra
- #2 Create OFDM symbol for three subcarriers with 1,2 and 3 cycles carrying bits 1,-1 and 1
- #3 Launch the signal of #2 to the channel of #1 and plot the OFDM signal before and after the channel to same picture.
- #4 Detect (Integrate an dump) the bits after and before the channel and compare. See the generated ICI also by detecting the 4:n ‘carrier’!

Slide 73 ### The channel

OFDM in a multipath channel.mcd

Slide 75 ### Single carrier transmission and rms delay spread

Determine by using MathCAD’s linterp-function the maximum rate for delay spread of 70 us!

Slide 76 Rate and delay spread.mcd

Slide 77 ### Cyclic prefix

Slide 80 ### Example: a two-path channel

Slide 81 ### Home exercise: Orthogonality and multipath channel

- Demonstrate by MathCAD that the orthogonality of OFDM signal can be maintained in a multipath channel when guard interval is applied
- #1 modify syms2-signal to include a cyclic prefix
- #2 introduce multipath delays not exceeding the duration of cyclic prefix (apply the rot-function)
- #3 determine integrate and dump detected bits for #2 and especially for carriers that are not used to find that no signal is leaking into other subcarriers -> ICI is avoided!

Slide 82 Slide 84 ### Detection

Slide 85 ### Peak-power problem

Slide 86 ### Envelope Power Statistics

Slide 87 ### Exercise

- Create an OFDM signal in time domain and determine experimentally its PAPR
- Experiment with different bit-patterns to show that the PAPR is a function of bit pattern of the symbol
- #1 create 64 pcs BPSK LPE bits
- #2 define a function to create OFDM symbol with the specified number of carriers (with 256 samples) carrying bits of #1
- #3 check that the carriers are generated correctly by a plot
- #4 determine PAPR for a set of 64 OFDM subcarriers. Compare with different bit patterns (eg. evaluate #1 again by pressing F9)

Slide 88 Slide 91 ### Transfer characteristics of power amplifier

Slide 92 ### Exercise: Non-linear distortion

- Demonstrate build-up of harmonics for a sinusoidal wave due to non-linearity of a power amplifier
- #1 Create a sinusoidal wave, 256 samples and 8 cycles
- #2 Create a clipping function that cuts a defined section of wave’s amplitudes
- #3 Apply #2 to #1 and plot the result
- #4 compare #1 to #3 in frequency domain log-scale with different levels of clipping

Slide 94 ### PAPRsuppression

- Selective mapping (coding)
- Cons: Table look-up required at the receiver

- Signal distortion techniques
- Clipping, peak windowing, peak cancellation
- Cons: Symbols with a higher PAPR suffer a higher symbol error probability

Prasad, Ramjee. OFDM for Wireless Communications Systems.

Norwood, MA, USA: Artech House, Incorporated, 2004. p 150.

http://site.ebrary.com/lib/otaniemi/Doc?id=10081973&ppg=166

Slide 95 ### Selective mapping

Slide 96 ### Clipping

- Cancel the peaks by simply limiting the amplitude to a desired level
- Self-interference
- Out-of band radiation

- Side effects be reduced by applying different clipping windows

Slide 99 ### Peak cancellation

Slide 101 ### Comparing clipping and peak cancellation

a) undistorted

b) peak cancellation

c) clipping

Slide 102 ### Effect of peak cancellation on packet error rate (PER)

Slide 103 ### OFDM transceiver

Slide 104 ### System error rate

- In AWGN channel OFDM system performance same as for single-carrier
- In fading multipath a better performance can be achieved
- Adjusts to delay spread
- Allocates justified number of bits/subcarrier

Slide 105 Slide 106 ### Exercise: BPSK error rate

Slide 108 How would you modify this function to

simulate unipolar system?

Slide 110 ### Bit allocation for carriers

- Each carrier is sensed (channel estimation) to find out the respective subchannel SNR at the point of reception (or channel response)
- Based on information theory, only a certain, maximum amount of data be allocated for a channel with the specified BT and SNR
- OFDM bit allocation policies strive to determine optimum number of levels for each subcarrier to (i) maximize rate or (ii) minimize power for the specified error rate

Slide 111 ### Water-pouringprinciple

- Assume we know the received energy for each subchannel (symbol), noise power/Hz and the required BER
- Assume that the required BER/subchannel is the same for each subchannel (applies when relatively high channel SNR)
- Water-pouring principle strives to determine the applicable number of levels (or bit rate) for subcarriers to obtain the desired transmission

Slide 115 ### Home exercise 2: Water pouring principle

- Follow the previous script and…
- Explain how it works by own words
- Comment the result with respect of information theory

Slide 116 ### System impairments

Slide 119 http://www.eng.usf.edu/wcsp/OFDM_links.html

Slide 120 ### Exercise ICI

- Create a MathCAD script to investigate frequency offset produced ICI

Slide 121 ### Summary