Core self evaluations and job satisfaction the role of self concordance
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Core Self-Evaluations and Job Satisfaction: The Role of Self-Concordance. Timothy A. Judge Joyce E. Bono Amir Erez Edwin A. Locke. Core Self-Evaluations (CSE). Represents the fundamental assessments that people make about their worthiness and competence Higher-order concept indicated by:

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Core self evaluations and job satisfaction the role of self concordance l.jpg

Core Self-Evaluations and Job Satisfaction: The Role of Self-Concordance

Timothy A. Judge

Joyce E. Bono

Amir Erez

Edwin A. Locke


Core self evaluations cse l.jpg
Core Self-Evaluations (CSE) Self-Concordance

  • Represents the fundamental assessments that people make about their worthiness and competence

  • Higher-order concept indicated by:

    • self-esteem

    • locus of control

    • neuroticism (emotional stability)

    • generalized self-efficacy

  • The first three of these traits are the most studied in psychology


  • Applications of cse l.jpg
    Applications of CSE Self-Concordance

    • CSE has been related to:

      • motivation (Erez & Judge, 2001)

      • job performance (Judge & Bono, 2001)

      • stress (Best, 2003)

      • leadership (Eisenberg, 2000)

    • The most commonly investigated criterion is job satisfaction


    Cse job satisfaction l.jpg
    CSE – Job Satisfaction Self-Concordance

    End points indicate

    limits of 80% CV

    Notes: SE=self-esteem; GSF=generalized self-efficacy;

    LOC=locus of control; ES=emotional stability

    Source: Judge & Bono (JAP, 2001)


    Cse job satisfaction explaining the relationship l.jpg
    CSE – Job Satisfaction Self-ConcordanceExplaining the Relationship

    • Research indicates that CSE – job satisfaction relationship is mediated by intrinsic job characteristics: High CSE people both attain more complex jobs, and perceive more challenge in jobs of equal complexity

    • As Judge, Bono, Erez, Locke, and Thoresen (2002) commented, “Other theoretical mechanisms will need to be studied”


    Self concordance l.jpg
    Self-Concordance Self-Concordance

    • Research suggests that people who chose goals that are concordant with their ideals, interests, and values are happier than those who pursue goals for other (e.g., extrinsic or defensive) reasons (see Sheldon & Elliot, 1997)

    • Thus, one mechanism that may link CSE and job satisfaction is the motivation underlying goal pursuit


    Self concordance model l.jpg
    Self-Concordance Model Self-Concordance

    • Argues that individuals may pursue a goal for four (NME) types of reasons (Sheldon & Elliot, JPSP, 1998):

      • External—pursuing a goal due to others’ wishes, or to attain “indirect” rewards

      • Introjected—pursuing a goal to avoid feelings of shame, guilt, or anxiety

      • Identified—pursuing a goal out of a belief that it is an important goal to have

      • Intrinsic—pursuing a goal because of the fun and enjoyment it provides


    Slide8 l.jpg

    Hypothesized Model Self-Concordance

    Job/life

    satisfaction

    Self-esteem

    Generalized

    self-efficacy

    Locus of

    control

    Neuroticism

    +

    +

    +

    Self-concordant

    goals

    Core

    self-evaluations

    Goal

    attainment

    +

    +


    Method l.jpg
    Method Self-Concordance

    • We conducted two studies

      • Study 1: Examine the mediating role of self-concordance and goal attainment with respect to the personal goals of a undergraduates

      • Study 2: Test a model parallel to that in Study 1, but focusing on work goals and job satisfaction (as opposed to personal goals and life satisfaction)


    Study 1 method participants and measures l.jpg
    Study 1 Method Self-ConcordanceParticipants and Measures

    • 240 undergraduates

    • Personality and self-concordance were measured at Time 1, and goal attainment and life satisfaction were measured at Time 2 (N=183)

    • Core self-evaluations was measured with four individual scales, which then were treated as indicators of a higher-order core self-evaluations concept


    Study 1 method measure of self concordance l.jpg
    Study 1 Method Self-ConcordanceMeasure of Self-Concordance

    • Participants recorded six short-term goals (goals that could reasonably be attained in the next 60 days)

    • After identifying their goals, participants reported their reasons for goal pursuit, for each goal separately

    • Following Sheldon and Elliot (1998):

      SC=(intrinsic+identified)–(external+introjected)


    Study 1 method other measures l.jpg
    Study 1 Method Self-ConcordanceOther Measures

    • Goal attainment. We used two items from prior self-concordance research (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999); participants responded to each of these items for each of their six goals, after two months (responses were averaged across items and goals)

    • Life satisfaction. Life satisfaction was measured with the five-item Satisfaction with Life Scale


    Slide13 l.jpg

    Results: Study 1 Self-Concordance

    Life

    satisfaction

    Self-esteem

    Generalized

    self-efficacy

    Locus of

    control

    Neuroticism

    .95**

    .75**

    .66**

    -.61**

    .47**

    .25**

    .20**

    Core

    self-evaluations

    Goal

    attainment

    Self-concordant

    goals

    .24**

    .18†

    Notes: † p < .10. * p < .05; ** p < .01.

    2=14.69 (df=10). RMSEA = .05.

    RMSR = .04. CFI = .99. IFI = .99.


    Study 2 method participants and measures l.jpg
    Study 2 Method Self-ConcordanceParticipants and Measures

    • Participants were employees of a large defense contractor (N=251)

    • Personality and self-concordance were measured at Time 1, and goal attainment and life satisfaction were measured at Time 2

    • Core self-evaluations was measured with the same scale as in Study 1


    Study 2 method measures l.jpg
    Study 2 Method Self-ConcordanceMeasures

    • Participants recorded six short-term work goals; otherwise the same measurement approach to self-concordance was followed

    • Goal attainment was measured in a manner comparable to Study 1

    • Job satisfaction was measured with the short form of the Brayfield and Rothe (1951) job satisfaction scale


    Slide16 l.jpg

    Results: Study 2 Self-Concordance

    Job

    satisfaction

    Self-esteem

    Generalized

    self-efficacy

    Locus of

    control

    Neuroticism

    .95**

    .76**

    .49**

    -.76**

    .36**

    .17*

    .10

    Core

    self-evaluations

    Goal

    attainment

    Self-concordant

    goals

    .30**

    .22*

    Notes: * p < .05; ** p < .01.

    2=21.82 (df=10). RMSEA = .07.

    RMSR = .04. CFI = .98. IFI = .98.


    Discussion l.jpg
    Discussion Self-Concordance

    • According to the hypothesized model, people with positive self-regard are more likely to have self-concordant goals. In turn, those with more self-concordant goals should be happier and more satisfied with their goals, themselves, and ultimately their lives

    • Results supported the model


    Discussion18 l.jpg
    Discussion Self-Concordance

    • One of the more important contributions of this research was to illuminate the effect of core self- evaluations on self-concordance and its consequences

      • In both studies, there were significant associations between core self-evaluations and self-concordance

        • Those with positive core self-evaluations were especially good in demonstrating this adaptability to select “self-concordant” goals that represent their implicit interests


    Discussion19 l.jpg
    Discussion Self-Concordance

    • Surprisingly, results involving goal attainment were relatively weak

      • Goal attainment did not mediate self-concordance – satisfaction relationship

      • This relationship may be complex

        • Whereas setting difficult goals is dissatisfying because they lead to low expectations for goal attainment (Mento, Locke, & Klein, 1992), the attainment of those goals (which is facilitated by the setting of difficult goals) should lead to satisfaction (Locke & Latham, 1990)--i.e., the results may be offsetting


    Implications l.jpg
    Implications Self-Concordance

    • Results join increasing body of research that shows that individuals become more satisfied with job and life through one’s pursuits, if one picks the right goals and does well at them

    • People with positive core self-evaluations strive for the “right” reasons, and therefore get the “right” results, both of which in turn increase their levels of satisfaction

    • Moreover, such increases in satisfaction appear to last (both studies were longitudinal) and perhaps lead to even more positive changes in an “upward spiral” of positive outcomes


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