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MYCOLOGY -. STUDY OF MOLDS (FILAMENTOUS ORGANISMS) AND YEASTS (SINGLE CELLS WHICH PRODUCE PROGENY BY BUDDING, USUALLY ) EUKARYOTES , PRIMITIVE PLANTS, 5-10 μM DIAMETER 30 MEGA BASE PAIR GENOMES; SEVERAL CHROMOSOMES; 5,000 GENES

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Mycology

MYCOLOGY -

  • STUDY OF MOLDS (FILAMENTOUS ORGANISMS) AND YEASTS (SINGLE CELLS WHICH PRODUCE PROGENY BY BUDDING, USUALLY)

  • EUKARYOTES, PRIMITIVE PLANTS, 5-10 μM DIAMETER

  • 30 MEGA BASE PAIR GENOMES; SEVERAL CHROMOSOMES; 5,000 GENES

  • CELL WALL WITH CHITIN (N-ACETYL GLUCOSEAMINE POLYSACCHARIDE),

  • ABSORPTIVE NUTRITION,

  • LACK CHLOROPHYLL, NO PHOTOSYNTHESIS

  • FORM SPORES, NON-MOTILE,

  • TOLERATE DRYNESS, HIGH OSMOTIC PRESSURE,

  • ACID AND ALKALINE ENVIRONMENTS

  • SAPROPHYTES - DECAY DEAD CREATURES (& PERMIT

  • RECYLCING) - RELEASE HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES WHICH DIGEST EXTERNAL FOOD


Mycology

  • MOLDS -

  • LONG, BRANCHED FILAMENTS - HYPHAE

  • COENOCYTIC - NO PERPENDICULAR CROSS WALLS

  • SEPTATE - WITH CROSS WALLS WITH PORES

  • GROW BY EXTENSION, BRANCHING

  • MYCELIUM - MASS OF HYPHAE - COLONY

  • SPORES - DORMANT, CAN GERMINATE

  • YEASTS -

  • UNICELLULAR, SINGLE NUCLEUS, BUD PROGENY

  • (USUALLY)

  • DIMORPHIC FUNGI - SOME WHICH CAUSE DISEASE -

  • YEAST FORM IN THE ANIMAL, FILAMENTOUS FORM ON

  • CULTURE MEDIA


Mycology

  • REPRODUCTION

  • ASEXUAL - MITOSIS FOLLOWED BY:

  • TRANSVERSE CELL WALL FORMATION FORMING TWO EQUAL DAUGHTER CELLS BINARY FISSION

  • BUDDING FORMING MOTHER CELL AND NEW BUD

  • TRANSVERSE CELL WALL FORMATION FORMING SPORES WITHIN

  • A HYPHA OR AT THE END

  • SEXUAL –

  • HOMOTHALLIC - SELF-FERTILIZING, COMPATIBLE GAMETES ON

  • THE SAME MYCELIUM

  • HETEROTHALLIC - CROSSING BETWEEN DIFFERENT BUT

  • COMPATIBLE MYCELIA. HAPLOID GAMETES FUSE; DIPLOID

  • GAMETES; MEIOSIS, HAPLOID SPORES


Mycology

  • ZYGOMYCETES

  • COENOCYTIC - HAPLOID NUCLEI, HYPHA

  • RHIZOIDS EXTEND DOWN INTO SUBSTRATE, ABSORB NUTRIENTS

  • STOLONS - ERECT HYPHAE, FORM SPORANGIA WITH BLACK

  • SPORANGIOSPORES

  • E.G., COMMON BLACK BREAD MOLD: RHIZOPUS NIGRICANS

  • ASCOMYCETES

  • SEPTATE HYPHAE, CONIDIOSPORES AT END OF CONIDIOPHORE

  • ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS -

  • UBIQUITOUS - HOMES, ALLERGIC REACTIONS, ASTHMA, SINUSITIS,

  • OPPORTUNISTIC PATHOGEN ESPECIALLY IN HIV+ PEOPLE

  • ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS - AFLATOXINS

  • PENICILLIUM NOTATUM - FIRST PENICILLIN

  • PENICILLIUM ROQUEFORTI – CHEESE SOFTENING/RIPENING

  • CLAVICEPS PURPUREA - ERGOT OF RYE – PLANT DISEASE

  • ERGOTISM IN PEOPLE - ERGOT TOXIN - CONTAINS LYSERGIC ACID-

  • USED TO SYNTHESIZE LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE -LSD

  • VASOCONSTRICTION - GANGRENE, AMPUTATIONS

  • NEUROTRANSMISSION - SEVERE BURNING SENSATION;

  • HALLUCINATIONS, CONVULSIONS, DEATH

  • COMMON – EUROPE – MIDDLE AGES


Mycology

  • BASIDIOMYCETES

  • MUSHROOMS - DIPLOID HYPHAE GROWING IN SOIL

  • ASSEMBLE TO PUSH THROUGH SOIL;

  • FORM CAP UNDER WHICH BASIDIOSPORES DEVELOP

  • EDIBLE, BUT MUSHROOM POISONING


Mycology

Rhizopusnigricans– Pin-head mold

SPORANGIA

STOLON

GERMINATING

SPORE

AERIAL

HYPHA

HYPHA

ABSORBING

HYPHA

RHIZOID


Mycology

SPORANGIOSPORES IN SACS (SPORANGIA)

SPORES

Rhizopus nigricans


Mycology

ASPERGILLUS NIDULANS – CONIDIOSPORES AT ENDS OF CONIDIOPHORES


Mycology

Penicilliumnotatum

CONIDIOSPORES AT ENDS OF CONIDIOPHORES


Mycology

Penicillium

roqueforti

CONIDIOSPORES AT ENDS OF CONIDIOPHORES


Mycology

ROQUEFORT CHEESE

BLUE-GREEN CONIDIOSPORES OF Penicilliumroqueforti


Mycology

APPRECIATE !

LIFE OF A MUSHROOM

NOT ASSIGNED


Mycology

MYCOSES - FUNGAL INFECTIONS

I.DERMATOPHYTES – FUNGI ON, IN, UNDER SKIN, HAIR, NAILS

A. SUPERFICIAL- ON OUTER SURFACES SKIN, HAIR, NAILS

- TROPICS – SOAP AND WATER

B. CUTANEOUS- WITHIN SKIN, HAIR, NAILS

- RINGWORM (TRICHOPHYTON, OTHERS)

- ATHLETE’S FOOT

C. SUBCUTANEOUS

- INTRODUCED THROUGH SKIN

(PUNCTURE WOUNDS)

- SPREAD ALONG LYMPH CHANNELS


Mycology

FIG 39.13 CUTANEOUS MYCOSIS

RINGWORM (TRICHOPHYTON)

p 1009


Mycology

FIG 39.17 SUBCUTANEOUS MYCOSIS

CHROMOBLASTOMYCOSIS (BLACK MOLDS, PHIALOPHORA)

p 1010


Mycology

II.SYSTEMIC INFECTIONS - INTERNAL

A.HISTOPLASMOSIS - HISTOPLASMA CAPSULATUM

DIMORPHIC

MILD RESPIRATORY INFECTION - HEALTHY PEOPLE RECOVER

WITHOUT KNOWING THEY HAD DISEASE

ENDEMIC - OHIO RIVER VALLEY

SEVERE DISEASE IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED

B.COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS - COCCIDIODES IMMITIS

DESERT FEVER - 95% MILD RESPIRATORY

5% TB-LIKE

FEW: DISSEMINATES TOBRAIN, BONES,

JOINTS, MENINGES

DIMORPHIC

C.CRYPTOCOCCOSIS – CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS

RESPIRATORY TRACT > CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

MENINGITIS - INFLAMMATION OF MENINGES

D.PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA – PNEUMOCYSTIS CARINII

PNEUMONIA IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED


Mycology

Pneumocystis carinii


Mycology

14

Pneumocystis cariniiPNEUMONIA


Mycology

III. TREATMENT OF SYSTEMIC FUNGAL INFECTIONS –

AMPHOTERICIN B - DISRUPTS MEMBRANE FUNCTION, TOXIC FOR

PEOPLE

FLUCONAZOLE - PROPHYLACTIC IN AIDS PATIENTSINHIBITS STEROL

SYNTHESIS, AND THEREFORENORMAL MEMBRANE FUNCTION

IV.MYCOTOXINS -

 ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS– AFLATOXINS


Mycology

V.CANDIDIASIS - THRUSH, MONILIASIS, WHITE PATCHES OF MOUTH,

TONGUE, VAGINA

CANDIDA ALBICANS - NORMAL FLORA YEAST

C. ALBICANS FLOURISHES:

IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED PEOPLE,

IN NORMAL HEALTH FOLK WHEN THEIRBACTERIAL FLORA

IS DESTROYED - PROLONGED ANTIBIOTIC WHICH

DESTROY PROKARYOTES

VAGINITIS - DIABETES, ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES,

ESPECIALLY DURING PREGNANCY

DIAPER RASH

TREATMENT - TOPICAL

NYSTATIN - STREPTOMYCES ANTIBIOTIC, DAMAGES

MEMBRANE, CYTOPLASM LEAKAGE

MICONAZOLE - ANTIBIOTIC, DAMAGES MEMBRANE,

DISRUPTS STEROLS SYNTHESIS


Mycology

CANDIDA ALBICANS

ORAL THRUSH


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