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Latin American Revolutions 1800’s. European Empires in Latin America: 1660s. Spain. France. Portugal. Early Social Class in Latin America. Colonial society was divided into six classes based on birth. Peninsulares (men born in Spain) Creoles (Spaniards born in Latin America)

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Latin American

Revolutions

1800’s


European Empires in Latin America: 1660s

Spain

France

Portugal


Early social class in latin america
Early Social Classin Latin America

Colonial society was divided into six classes based on birth

Peninsulares

(men born in Spain)

Creoles

(Spaniards born in Latin America)

Mestizos

(mixed European & Indian ancestry)

Mulattos

(mixed European & African ancestry)

Africans

(majority enslaved)

Indians

(of little economic value)


The economy in colonial latin america
The Economy incolonial Latin America

  • Economy: based on the ideas of “Mercantilism”

  • Africans & American Indians used as slave labor

  • Lands are used for natural resources (harvested/minedand traded)


Causes of Latin AmericanRevolutions

  • Inspired by Enlightenmentideas

  • Creole discontent

  • Motivated by the “successful” American and French Revolutions.

  • Preoccupation of Spain & Portugal in fighting in other wars (the Napoleonic Wars)

  • Economic policies benefited Europeans at the expense of the native Latin Americans


EnlightenmentThinkers

New ideas about freedom, rights, and liberty!


Creole Discontent

Want a voice in government and economy but are not allowed due to birth!


Inspiration of American & French Revolutions

Declaration of the Rights of Man & of the Citizen, 1789

Declaration of Independence, 1776


Preoccupation of Spain & Portugal In Fighting Napoleonic Wars

Provides a model & a diversion!



Toussaint WarsL’OuvetureLeads a Revolutionin Haiti(1804)


First Colony to revolt…Haiti Wars

Home Country: French colony

Date of Independence: 1804

Independence Leaders:

- Toussiant-Louverture (former slave)

- Jean-Jaques Dessalines (Toussaint’s general)

Haitian Independence:

1791= slave revolt

1801= Toussaint seized 2/3 of Haiti (frees slaves)

1802= French troops arrive & agreement made

to stop revolution

1804= Dessalines starts revolution again and

declares independence


Argentina Wars

Home Country: Spanish colony

Date of Independence: 1816

Independence Leaders:

- Jose de San Martin (Spanish military officer)

Argentiaian Independence:

1816= Creole colonist rebel & seize government

1816= Martin declares independence


The “Muscle” of the Revolution Wars

Bolivar coming from the North.

José de St. Martín and Bernard O’Higgins cross the Andes Mountains.


Chile Wars

Home Country: Spanish colony

Date of Independence: 1817

Independence Leaders:

- Jose de San Martin (Spanish military officer)

- Bernardo O’Higgins (military officer)

Chile Independence:

1817= San Martin leads his army across the

Andes into Chile

1817= Joins forces with O’Higgins and defeat

the Spanish and declare independence


Simón Bolivar: WarsThe “Brains”of theRevolution

  • Creole leader of the revolutions in Venezuela.

  • Spent time in Europe and the newly-independent United States.


Venezuela, Columbia, and Panama Wars

Home Country: Spanish colony

Date of Independence: 1821/1822

Independence Leaders:

- Simon Bolivar (Venezulan Creole/military general)

Gran Columbia Independence:

1811= Venezuela declares independence

1811-1821= Revolts against Spanish

1821= Bolivar wins independence

1821= Rebellion goes to Columbia, Ecuador,

& Panama

1822= Bolivar elected president; the new nation

called Gran Columbia established





Peru Wars

Home Country: Spanish colony

Date of Independence: 1824

Independence Leaders:

- Jose de San Martin (Spanish military officer)

- Simon Bolivar (Venezuelan Creole/military general)

Peruvian Independence:

1821= San Martin takes army to Lima, Peru to

drive out the remaining Spanish

1822= San Martin joins Bolivar/combines army

1822= San Martin leaves for Europe

1822= Carries rebellion to Columbia, Ecuador,

and Panama

1822= Bolivar defeats Spanish at Battle of Ayacucho


Bolivia Wars

Home Country: Spanish colony

Date of Independence: 1825

Independence Leaders:

- Simon Bolivar (Venezuelan Creole/military general)

Bolivian Independence:

1824= Bolivar drives out the remaining Spanish

from Peru

1825= Upper Peru separates and names itself

Bolivia (after Simon Bolivar)


Bolivar’s Failure Wars

  • After uniting Venezuela, Columbia, & Ecuador into Gran Columbia, he left to help free the rest of Latin America

  • He died a year later, with his goal of uniting all of South America unfulfilled!


Latin WarsAmerican StatesAfter the Revolutions


Results Wars

of the

Latin American

Revolutions


1.) Brazil Freed from Portugal Wars

  • The Portuguese royal family escaped Napoleon by fleeing to Brazil.

  • Pedro I set up a new, independent kingdom in 1821 when his father returned to Portugal.

  • Pedro II assumed full power after Pedro I abdicated his throne.


Brazil Wars

Home Country: Portuguese colony

Date of Independence: 1822

Independence Leaders:

- Dom Joao/King John(leader of Portugal)

- Dom Pedro (son of King John)

Brazillian Independence:

1807= Prince John flees to Brazil to escape from

Napoleon & rules from Portugal (14 yrs)

1815= Napoleon defeated

1822= Brazilian creoles demand independence

1822= petition by Brazilians ask for Dom Pedro

to rule Brazil; King John agrees


2.) Independence Warsfor Spanish & Portuguese Latin America

  • By the mid-1820s, revolts create many newly-independent nations.

    • Toussaint L’Ouveture – Haiti

    • Bolívar, San Martín, & O’Higgins in: Paraguay, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Peru, Bolivia, the United Provinces of Central America, and Gran Columbia!


3.) No Unity! Wars

  • Failure of Bolivar’s dream for a united South America =

    • Civil wars erupt in many newly independent countries.

  • By 1830s, geographic barriers (mts., the Amazon, etc.), vast distances, plus cultural differences defeated attempts at unification.

    • Gran Columbia.

    • United Provinces of Central America.


4.) Independence Brought More Poverty Wars

  • The wars disrupted trade.

  • The wars devastated the cities and the countryside.


5.) Left Many Countries in the Control of WarsCaudillos

  • WHO WERE THEY?:

    • Mid-19c military dictators

    • Mostly wealthy “creole” aristocrats.

    • Followed the fight for independence.

    • Posed as reformers.

    • BUT…once in power overthrew govt. & took away basic human rights.

    • Attempted improvements, but most just cared about themselves and their families and friends [nepotism].

    • Power changes usually occurred at bayonet-point [coup d’etats!]



Additional Problems Wars

Feuds among leaders.

Geographic barriers.

The social hierarchy continued from the past.

Conservatives favored the old social order.

Liberals wanted land reform.

Dependence on foreign nations for capital and for economic investments.


The Caribbean: WarsAn “American Lake”


“The Colossus Warsof the North”

  • US dominated affairs in theAmericas.

  • 1823 – Monroe Doctrine.

  • US takes Texas and Mexican Cession.

  • US gains independence for Cuba.

  • Roosevelt Corollary – US will police the America.

  • US sent troops to Cuba, Haiti, Mexico, Honduras, Nicaragua.

  • US built Panama Canal – “Yankee imperialism.”





Mexican Revolutionaries Wars

EmilianoZapata

Pancho Villa

VenustianoCarranza

Francisco I Madero

Porfirio Diaz


The Mexican Revolution Wars

  • Victoriano Huerta seizes control of Mexico and puts Madero in prison where he was murdered.

  • Venustiano Carranza, Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata, and Alvaro Obregon fought against Huerta.

  • The U.S. also got involved by occupying Veracruz and Huerta fled the country.

  • Eventually Carranza would gain power in Mexico.


Mexico Wars

Home Country: Spanish colony

Date of Independence: 1821

Independence Leaders:

- Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (priest)

- Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon (rebel leader)

- General Augustin de Ituribe (Creole officer)

Mexican Independence:

1810= Costilla leads rebellion against Spainish

1811= Costilla defeated and executed

1811= Pavon leads rebellion for next four years

1815= Iturbide defeats Pavon

1821= turns on Spanish over loss of rights; makes

peace with Pavon; declares independence




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