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INEQUALITY. How do you make sense of our differences?. How unequal are we?. Median Family Income-2007. U.S. Census. Individuals Living in Poverty - 2007. Whites – 8.2% Blacks – 24.5% Hispanics – 21.5% Asians – 10.2% Native Americans – 25.7% U.S. Population – 12.1%

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inequality

INEQUALITY

How do you make sense

of our differences?

individuals living in poverty 2007
Individuals Living in Poverty - 2007

Whites – 8.2%

Blacks – 24.5%

Hispanics – 21.5%

Asians – 10.2%

Native Americans – 25.7%

U.S. Population – 12.1%

Poverty Rate: $21,203 per year for 4 people

the suburbs are wealthy right
The suburbs are wealthy…right?

2004

  • 38.5 percent of poor Americans lived in the suburbs (13.8 million people)
  • 40.6 percent of poor Americans lived in central cities (14.6 million people)

1970

  • 20.5 percent of nation’s poor lived in the suburbs
wealth in the u s 2002 per capita
Wealth in the U.S. - 2002(per capita)
  • Whites: with home = $79,400

without home = $22,566

  • Blacks: with home = $7,500

without home = $1,166

  • Latino/as: with home = $9,750

without home = $1,850

  • All Households: with home = $55,000

without home = $13,473

slide7

The early

1980s

rocked the

house!

home ownership and race
Home Ownership and Race
  • White – 75.8%
  • Black – 48.2
  • Asian/PI – 60.1
  • Hispanic – 49.5
  • American Indian – 58.2
  • Other – 59.2

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau (2005)

education graduating from high school 2004
Education (% graduating from High School) - 2004

Whites – 85.5%

Blacks – 72.3%

Latino/as – 52.4%

Asians – 80.4%

Native Americans – 70.9%

2005 gap in graduation rates between urban suburban districts
2005 Gap in Graduation Rates Between Urban-Suburban Districts

Average High School Graduation Rate of fifty largest cities: 53 percent

Average High School Graduation Rate of the suburban districts of those fifty cities: 71 percent

education graduating from college 2004
Education (% graduating from College) - 2004

Whites – 27.0%

Blacks – 14.3%

Latino/as – 10.4%

Asians – 44.1%

Native Americans – 11.5%

U.S. Population – 24.4%

slide12

Explain the root cause(s)

of these differences

slide14

BIOLOGICAL: cause of inequality is related to people’s genetic differences

SOCIO-PSYCHO COGNITIVE: cause of inequality is related to people’s choices

SOCIO-STRUCTURAL: cause of inequality is related to people’s socioeconomic differences

slide15

BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONSome (ancestry) groups “dominate” other groups because they are biologicallymatched for particular social conditions.

slide16
1. PHYSICAL FEATURES: size, strength, etc.2. GENETIC PSYCHO-COGNITIVE FEATURES: emotional temperament, tenacity, I.Q., etc.
genetics and race
GENETICS AND RACE
  • 99.99% of human genome is the same in everyone
  • .01% of our genes are reflected in our external appearance
  • 88-90% of genetic differences between people occur within the local populations
  • 10-12% of genetic variations are a result of different populations living in different parts of the world
slide18

What genetic-based inequality would look like:All members of particular ancestry groups are disposed to some advantage that leads them to have more sociological power (e.g., income, wealth).

problems
Problems:

1. What constitutes a “racial group”?

2. What is the direct link between social or economic “advantage” and genetics?

- size?

- intellect?

3. Perhaps this can occur to small degrees…

slide20
AFRICAN SPEED: 16 of the 16 runners the men\'s and women\'s 100 meter sprint finals traced their ancestry to West Africa.
slide21

Example of a more tangible measure:

We can measure this: we can easily time a sprint and measure legs and torsos.

HOWEVER, there are still sociological variables to account for.

baseball and race
Baseball and Race

Black Hispanic

Mestizo Hispanic

example of a less tangible measure
Example of a less tangible measure
  • Major League Baseball is increasingly dominated by players from Latin America and the Caribbean
  • Hockey is dominated by people of European Ancestry
  • Basketball in the U.S. is dominated by African Americans?
  • Rugby is dominated by mentally ill people.
what about other intangible characteristics of people genetic psycho cognitive factors
WHAT ABOUT OTHER INTANGIBLE CHARACTERISTICS OF PEOPLE?Genetic Psycho-Cognitive Factors
  • I.Q.
  • Moral Character
  • Ambition or Personal Drive
  • Contentment
  • Education
  • Income and Wealth
slide38

BIOLOGICAL: cause of inequality is related to people’s genetic differences

SOCIO-PSYCHO COGNITIVE: cause of inequality is related to people’s choices

SOCIO-STRUCTURAL: cause of inequality is related to people’s socioeconomic differences

psycho cognitive explanation
Psycho-Cognitive Explanation

Based on the Free Will-Libertarian Position

  • People are always free to think/act other than the way they do
  • Our economic and political circumstances are PRIMARILY shaped by our individual choices
achievement ideology
ACHIEVEMENT IDEOLOGY
  • Every American has an equal chance of “making it”
  • Every American can succeed if they work hard enough
psycho cognitive explanation1
Psycho-Cognitive Explanation

Based on the Free Will-Libertarian Position

  • People are always free to think/act other than the way they do
  • Our economic and political circumstances are PRIMARILY shaped by our individual choices
slide42

BIOLOGICAL: cause of inequality is related to people’s genetic differences

SOCIO-PSYCHO COGNITIVE: cause of inequality is related to people’s choices

SOCIO-STRUCTURAL: cause of inequality is related to people’s socioeconomic differences

determinist communitarian position
Determinist-Communitarian Position
  • Material conditions (education, wealth, urban/rural, etc.) shape all aspects of our lives
  • Personal choices only partially shape our socioeconomic circumstances
what about economic and political differences between ancestry groups
What about economic and political differences between ancestry groups?

2007 Median Family Income – U.S. Census

would you join the kkk
Would YOU join the KKK?

Might

this child?

which explanation do you draw on to answer the question why do some people go to college
Which explanation do you draw on to answer the question: “Why do some people go to college?”

FREE-WILL: people choose the majority of their actions & thoughtsvs.DETERMINISM: people’s actions & thoughts are shaped by factors and forces largely outside of their control

21 24 yr olds graduating from college 2002
FAMILY INCOME

Above $85,000 = 51.3%

$61K – 85K = 26.8%

35K – 61K = 12.7%

Below $35K = 6%

21-24 yr. olds Graduating From College -- 2002
slide51

Nationwide, nine in 10 high school graduates from families earning more than $80,000 a year take college classes by age 24.VS.Six in 10 high school graduates from families earning less than $33,000 a year take college classes by age 24.

slide52

At the nation\'s 146 most selective colleges, only 3% of students come from the lowest socioeconomic quarter. By contrast, 74% come from the top quarter.

slide53

State and local money account for more than 90 percent of all education spending.High poverty districts typically receive less per student when compared to low poverty districts.(Illinois: $2,026 less!)

slide59
Which explanation do you draw on to answer the question: “Why do some people go to college while others do not?”

FREE WILL

~ or ~

DETERMINISM

the school sponsored by the penn state chapter of asha free the slaves
The school sponsored by the Penn State Chapterof Asha-Free the Slaves

KhadharawanPhattupur

in Eastern U.P., India

racism three definitions
RACISM: three definitions

1. ACADEMIC: belief that people are superior or inferior on the basis of biological characteristics

2. FOLK: prejudice and acts of discrimination are (often labeled as) racist

3. STRUCTURAL: any system of advantage based on race

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