Essentialist Theory  of Race and Culture

Essentialist Theory of Race and Culture PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 184 Views
  • Updated On :
  • Presentation posted in: General

The key to prejudice. Allport (1954) has argued that prejudice stems from the lay belief that there are underlying essentialist dispositions of the maligned groups (e.g., lower intelligence, violent disposition). . The key to prejudice. Allport (1954) has argued that prejudice stems from the lay belief that there are underlying essentialist dispositions of the maligned groups (e.g., lower intelligence, violent temperament). A case in point: James Watson's remarkSunday Times, which quoted him 29823

Related searches for Essentialist Theory of Race and Culture

Download Presentation

Essentialist Theory of Race and Culture

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


1. Essentialist Theory of Race and Culture

2. The key to prejudice Allport (1954) has argued that prejudice stems from the lay belief that there are underlying essentialist dispositions of the maligned groups (e.g., lower intelligence, violent disposition).

3. The key to prejudice Allport (1954) has argued that prejudice stems from the lay belief that there are underlying essentialist dispositions of the maligned groups (e.g., lower intelligence, violent temperament). A case in point: James Watson’s remark Sunday Times, which quoted him saying he was “inherently gloomy about the prospect of Africa” because “all our social policies are based on the fact that their intelligence is the same as ours, whereas all the testing says not really.” Later he apologized and said that “To all those who have drawn the inference from my words that Africa, as a continent, is somehow genetically inferior, I can only apologize unreservedly. That is not what I meant. More importantly from my point of view, there is no scientific basis for such a belief.”

4. Essentialist theory of race (No & Hong, 2005) Vision Statement of the US National Human Genome Research Institute (Collins et al., 2003, Science), “Race is a largely non-biological concept confounded by misunderstanding and a long history of prejudice… Use of genetic data to define racial groups, or of racial categories to classify biological traits, is prone to misinterpretation...” (p.10) A lay belief that race reflects essence (e.g., genes, biology) is unchangeable is indicative of abilities/traits (Haslam et al., 2006) Race Is an important categorization dimension in the US Race Is an important categorization dimension in the US

5. Among our samples…

6. Framework Cognitive associates: 1. Perceive different racial groups as dissimilar entities; 2. Greater sensitivity in using racial features to categorize people; 3. More difficult to switch between cultural frames among bicultural racial minorities; Responses in contexts: 4. Experience more stress when describing different social identities; 5. Less open up to experience a new culture. How does my research distinct from previous work? 1. I study the cognitive underpins of the essentialist belief; 2. I also try to understand the implications of the belief for racial minority individuals. Building a mediating model????How does my research distinct from previous work? 1. I study the cognitive underpins of the essentialist belief; 2. I also try to understand the implications of the belief for racial minority individuals. Building a mediating model????

7. 1. Perceiving different racial groups as dissimilar entities No, Hong, et al. (2007, Study 2) Ninety-two Asian Americans were asked to rate the personality traits of typical Asian Americans and typical White Americans on the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI, Gosling et al., 2003) Endorsements of essentialist race theory were correlated with less similarity in profile ratings of the two racial groups – a. Cohen’s profile similarity score: r=-.22 (p=.08) b. The distinctive profile similarity score (Furr, 2007): r=-.37 (p <.01) Descriptive statistics of the similarity ratings: Profile correlation: N=95, min=-0.73, max=1.00, mean=0.0706, sd=0.44154; Distinctive profile correlation: N=95, min=-0.73, max=0.76, mean=0.0044, sd=0.38009; Descriptive statistics of the similarity ratings: Profile correlation: N=95, min=-0.73, max=1.00, mean=0.0706, sd=0.44154; Distinctive profile correlation: N=95, min=-0.73, max=0.76, mean=0.0044, sd=0.38009;

8. Detection of subtle racial differences (Chao, Hong, & Chiu, 2008, Study 2) Purpose To examine whether essentialists are more able to detect subtle racial differences Method To decide group membership between two targets

9. Presented two faces at one time Present two stimuli at a time Within-subject design 6 blocks X 5 combinations X 15 trials 6 Block Questions: Who is more likely to be… Asian? (Block: Asian vs. Black; Asian vs. White) White? (Block: White vs. Asian; White vs. Black) Black? (Block: Black vs. Asian; Black vs. White) Answer options: Dichotomize: A or B Counterbalance correct answer keys No feedback given 75 trials within each block Sample combinations: 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5 Always use 100% picture as anchor for comparison Randomize block order and trial within block Present two stimuli at a time Within-subject design 6 blocks X 5 combinations X 15 trials 6 Block Questions: Who is more likely to be… Asian? (Block: Asian vs. Black; Asian vs. White) White? (Block: White vs. Asian; White vs. Black) Black? (Block: Black vs. Asian; Black vs. White) Answer options: Dichotomize: A or B Counterbalance correct answer keys No feedback given 75 trials within each block Sample combinations: 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5 Always use 100% picture as anchor for comparison Randomize block order and trial within block

10. No response feedback given Present two stimuli at a time Within-subject design 6 blocks X 5 combinations X 15 trials 6 Block Questions: Who is more likely to be… Asian? (Block: Asian vs. Black; Asian vs. White) White? (Block: White vs. Asian; White vs. Black) Black? (Block: Black vs. Asian; Black vs. White) Answer options: Dichotomize: A or B Counterbalance correct answer keys No feedback given 75 trials within each block Sample combinations: 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5 Always use 100% picture as anchor for comparison Randomize block order and trial within block Present two stimuli at a time Within-subject design 6 blocks X 5 combinations X 15 trials 6 Block Questions: Who is more likely to be… Asian? (Block: Asian vs. Black; Asian vs. White) White? (Block: White vs. Asian; White vs. Black) Black? (Block: Black vs. Asian; Black vs. White) Answer options: Dichotomize: A or B Counterbalance correct answer keys No feedback given 75 trials within each block Sample combinations: 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5 Always use 100% picture as anchor for comparison Randomize block order and trial within block

12. Present two stimuli at a time Within-subject design 6 blocks X 5 combinations X 15 trials 6 Block Questions: Who is more likely to be… Asian? (Block: Asian vs. Black; Asian vs. White) White? (Block: White vs. Asian; White vs. Black) Black? (Block: Black vs. Asian; Black vs. White) Answer options: Dichotomize: A or B Counterbalance correct answer keys No feedback given 75 trials within each block Sample combinations: 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5 Always use 100% picture as anchor for comparison Randomize block order and trial within block Present two stimuli at a time Within-subject design 6 blocks X 5 combinations X 15 trials 6 Block Questions: Who is more likely to be… Asian? (Block: Asian vs. Black; Asian vs. White) White? (Block: White vs. Asian; White vs. Black) Black? (Block: Black vs. Asian; Black vs. White) Answer options: Dichotomize: A or B Counterbalance correct answer keys No feedback given 75 trials within each block Sample combinations: 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5 Always use 100% picture as anchor for comparison Randomize block order and trial within block

13. A racially unambiguous face is always paired with an ambiguous face from a different set of morphed faces (150 trials total) The unambiguous face is the correct response For the black-white pairing there are 30 white and 30 black faces. i did 30 different morphing, so that one of the white faces is morphed with one of the black faces--each face is only morphed once to produce the 10 levels ( e.g., i only morph Johnny with Tom; and Pet with Rich; but never pair up Johnny with Pet again).    In terms of actual stimuli presentation across trials: For the Black-white pairing, there are 75 trials for the "Who is more likely to be white?" question and another 75 trials for the "Who is more likely to be black?" question. When I select the stimuli, pictures with the appropriate "level" are selected to place side by side; and each of the 30 pairs of morphed faces are selected in such a way that they would have equal chance of appearing. But I never show the same pair twice. e.g., if i show Level 3 of a morphed faces (say, between Johnny and Tom), with a Level 1 morphed face (say, between Pet and Rich), I would not pair up the morphed faces of "Johnny and Tom" with "Pet and Rich" at another level again, so that people won't "think back" and try to remember how they did it last time. For the black-white pairing there are 30 white and 30 black faces. i did 30 different morphing, so that one of the white faces is morphed with one of the black faces--each face is only morphed once to produce the 10 levels ( e.g., i only morph Johnny with Tom; and Pet with Rich; but never pair up Johnny with Pet again).    In terms of actual stimuli presentation across trials: For the Black-white pairing, there are 75 trials for the "Who is more likely to be white?" question and another 75 trials for the "Who is more likely to be black?" question. When I select the stimuli, pictures with the appropriate "level" are selected to place side by side; and each of the 30 pairs of morphed faces are selected in such a way that they would have equal chance of appearing. But I never show the same pair twice. e.g., if i show Level 3 of a morphed faces (say, between Johnny and Tom), with a Level 1 morphed face (say, between Pet and Rich), I would not pair up the morphed faces of "Johnny and Tom" with "Pet and Rich" at another level again, so that people won't "think back" and try to remember how they did it last time.

14. % of correct responses for different level of ambiguity Present two stimuli at a time Within-subject design 6 blocks X 5 combinations X 15 trials 6 Block Questions: Who is more likely to be… Asian? (Block: Asian vs. Black; Asian vs. White) White? (Block: White vs. Asian; White vs. Black) Black? (Block: Black vs. Asian; Black vs. White) Answer options: Dichotomize: A or B Counterbalance correct answer keys No feedback given 75 trials within each block Sample combinations: 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5 Always use 100% picture as anchor for comparison Randomize block order and trial within block Present two stimuli at a time Within-subject design 6 blocks X 5 combinations X 15 trials 6 Block Questions: Who is more likely to be… Asian? (Block: Asian vs. Black; Asian vs. White) White? (Block: White vs. Asian; White vs. Black) Black? (Block: Black vs. Asian; Black vs. White) Answer options: Dichotomize: A or B Counterbalance correct answer keys No feedback given 75 trials within each block Sample combinations: 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5 Always use 100% picture as anchor for comparison Randomize block order and trial within block

15. Present two stimuli at a time Within-subject design 6 blocks X 5 combinations X 15 trials 6 Block Questions: Who is more likely to be… Asian? (Block: Asian vs. Black; Asian vs. White) White? (Block: White vs. Asian; White vs. Black) Black? (Block: Black vs. Asian; Black vs. White) Answer options: Dichotomize: A or B Counterbalance correct answer keys No feedback given 75 trials within each block Sample combinations: 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5 Always use 100% picture as anchor for comparison Randomize block order and trial within block Present two stimuli at a time Within-subject design 6 blocks X 5 combinations X 15 trials 6 Block Questions: Who is more likely to be… Asian? (Block: Asian vs. Black; Asian vs. White) White? (Block: White vs. Asian; White vs. Black) Black? (Block: Black vs. Asian; Black vs. White) Answer options: Dichotomize: A or B Counterbalance correct answer keys No feedback given 75 trials within each block Sample combinations: 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5 Always use 100% picture as anchor for comparison Randomize block order and trial within block

18. Result summary An essentialist race theory is associated with greater sensitivity for racial information. The hot process is supported by basic cognitive processing.

19. How do essentialist theory of race affect cultural frame switching? Believing in race as essentialist would lead Chinese to view Chinese and Americans as discrete groups that have no overlaps. As a result, an essentialist race belief would create resistance toward cultural frame switching, such that the mainstream American icons would remind ethnic minority members of their fixed ethnicity (i.e., “I am a Chinese”), and thereby evoke reactivity in their cognitive and affective responses. ?a hot process

20. Perceiving culture as discrete (Chao, Chen, Roisman, & Hong, 2007, Study 1, Psychological Science) Purpose To examine whether essentialist perceive culture to be more discrete Method Cultural priming

22. +

23. +

24. +

25. freedom

26. +

27. +

28. +

29. dvniiialtydui

30. Design

31. Dependent measure & Prediction

32. Participants 47 Chinese-American students (43% US born) Completed the cultural priming task and questionnaire (With the essentialist theory measure embedded) Dependent measure & Prediction

33. Results: Prime X Target

35. Result summary An essentialist race theory is associated with representing the Chinese and American cultures as discrete entities, making it harder to switch between Chinese and American cultural frames.

36. Purpose To examine how essentialists respond when talking about their personal experiences with two apparently discrete cultures Method Cultural attachment interview Physiological measures

39. Interpretation The Psyc Sci paper is based more on the Behavior Approach System (BAS) and Behavior Inhibition System (BIS) Sweating = behavior inhibition (in face of threat; need to resolve inconsistency—e.g., belief in fixed cultural boundary and being bicultural) Heart rate = behavior activation/approach There is no one single clear cut way to interpret physio data The interpretations would depends on the situation and the experimental paradigm In attachment paradigm, usually, people who have conflict or are defensive (e.g., not feel good about the relationship, but try to talk about other things to get around) show heightened SCL responses. Interpretation The Psyc Sci paper is based more on the Behavior Approach System (BAS) and Behavior Inhibition System (BIS) Sweating = behavior inhibition (in face of threat; need to resolve inconsistency—e.g., belief in fixed cultural boundary and being bicultural) Heart rate = behavior activation/approach There is no one single clear cut way to interpret physio data The interpretations would depends on the situation and the experimental paradigm In attachment paradigm, usually, people who have conflict or are defensive (e.g., not feel good about the relationship, but try to talk about other things to get around) show heightened SCL responses.

41. Study of Expatriates’ Cultural Experience (Zhang and Hong, 2006) Below are questions concerning your activities during the past 6 months. Please fill in the blanks with percentages. (0 to 100) Sample activities: During this past period, when I listened to music, _____% of the time I listened to Chinese music. During this past period, when I was engaged in recreation, _____% of the time it was Chinese forms of recreation. (e.g. Chinese movies, Ma jiang, Chinese poker….) Among the restaurants where I dined out during the past month, _____% were Chinese restaurants. During this past period, the language I used at work was _____% Chinese. During this past period, _____% of the films I watched was in Chinese. Now _____% of my friends are Chinese. These are some samples of the primes that we used in our study… These are some samples of the primes that we used in our study…

42. Results (N=84)

43. 'We're French,' but not 'real' French By Katrin Bennhold International Herald Tribune FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 4, 2005 LA COURNEUVE, France Walid was born in France and went to a French high school. He will show you his French driving license and even his French identity card. But ask him what his identity is and he will say "93."   "Nine Three" - the two first two digits of the postal code spanning the roughest suburbs on Paris's northeastern fringe - stands for unemployment and endless rows of housing projects. It stands for chronically high crime rates, teenage gang wars and a large immigrant community…. "We are French, but we also feel like foreigners compared to the real French," said Mamadou, whose father came to France from Mali decades ago and married his mother, a French woman.   Who, according to him, are the "real" French?   The answer comes without hesitation and to vigorous nodding by a groups of his friends: "Those with white skin and blue eyes." Important points: 1. Peggy Miller: I think this is strongly underscored by Sumei's comment about hybridity cutting both ways, causing pain, distress, and so shouldn't be romanticized. A lot is at stake in this, practically (in education, psychotherapy) as well as theoretically. Knowing another culture is like “opening a new window” However, knowing and be able to switching between the cultural frames is another question. Also, knowing one more culture may not necessarily be a blessing There seems to be individual differences in the extent of taking advance of another cultural window. Let’s don’t romanticizing biculturalism or multiculturalism. Even malleable race theory do not necessarily predict no reactivity in all circumstances. When the context is extremely rejective/non-accepting, regardless of the theory, the minority members would have a hard time to adjust. 2. About white participants. I also have studied that and fixed theory of race is consistently associated with SDO… 'We're French,' but not 'real' French By Katrin Bennhold International Herald Tribune

44. Why Do People Believe in Racial/Cultural Essentialism Selective Accessibility People tend to use knowledge/concepts from their own culture/race to understand the behaviors of people from other culture/race [cultural ethnocentrism – egoism at the cultural level]. When they have difficulty in retrieving an appropriate concept from their own cultural experiences to understand the behaviors of the outgroup, outgroup behaviors seem incomprehensible. People tend to “explain” outgroup behaviors in terms of group differences. Once these group differences are perceived to be stable, characteristic attributes of the outgroup, essentialist theory of the outgroup develops.

45. Overcoming Cultural Essentialism Humanity, Sociality, and Individuality Everybody is similar to all people in some respects (humanity), similar to some people and different from other people in some respects (sociality), and different from all others in some respects (individuality). Universal needs/motives Modal differences between group Variations within a cultural group

46. Read other cultural groups’ behaviors from their cultural lens (decentering) Try to picture how individuals seek to satisfy their fundamental needs and attain their goals in the social and historical conditions they live in (empathy). Avoid judging a culture or people in a culture; think of alternative life styles for individuals in disadvantaged groups; how can we empower these individuals by helping them remove the constraints in the life (empowering help) without making them dependent on our assistance (dependence-promoting help)?

47. Promoting Intergroup Understanding Work on task with positive interdependence (rather than negative interdependence) Cultural/racial identity is salient during the interaction Promote self-disclosure during the interaction Promote perception of interaction participants as representative members of their cultural group – avoid subtyping.

48. Culture for sale Culture as a commodity for consumption. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zUXQimmdKLg [Romanticization of culture] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eZbM875v8EY&mode=related&search= [Romanticization of globalization] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OKhQZyXJHco&mode=related&search=

49. Taking Culture Seriously Culture is A human creation – creative solution to ecological constraints; Collective wisdom accumulated through experiences; intellectual resources for solving personal and group problems; A comfort zone – habits, conventionalized solutions to problems.

50. Human beings are Active agents, who Create culture Use culture to satisfy their basic psychological needs and solve social coordination problems Reproduce culture Reflect on and change culture

51. The objective of social psychology of culture to uncover the dynamic social psychological processes that give rise to individual-in-culture and culture-in-individual. How can we achieve this goal without essentializing cultures and reinforcing stereotypes?

  • Login