Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties
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NanoTechnology : What is it? The Challenges and Opportunties. Virginia Technology Education Association August 2009 Deb Newberry [email protected] ????? What is that? How does it work?. Over the last several decades… Modifications Improvements

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Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

NanoTechnology:What is it? The Challenges and Opportunties

Virginia Technology Education Association

August 2009

Deb Newberry

[email protected]


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

????? What is that? How does it work?


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

Over the last several decades…

Modifications

Improvements

New ‘scopes


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

Application of nanoscience is not new!


Nanotechnology a definition

Nanotechnology – A Definition

  • “Nano” is just a prefix (like “centi” or “mega”)

  • Can have a nanosecond, nanomile, nanogallon etc.

  • Most often today the prefix “nano” is applied to a length scale

  • Nanometer = 1 billionth of a meter, 1nm = 10 hydrogen atoms in a line

  • In reality, chemists, biologists and other scientists have been dealing with nanotechnology for decades.

  • Nanotechnology : The ability to imagine, design, investigate, modify, model, manipulate any substance at the molecular or atomic level.

  • National Science Foundation: Products with dimensions 1 to 100 nanometers.


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

  • It is a matter of scale


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

Courtesy Office of Basic Energy Sciences,Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy

© Deb Newberry 2008


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

A bacterium, ~ 1000 nm

A red blood cell, ~ 7000 nm

A virus, ~ 100 nm

Aspirin, ~1 nm

Starpharma.com

© Deb Newberry 2008


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

A List of the Metric Prefixes


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

An example:

The Aspirin Calculation

Easy algebra

Unit conversion

Exponential notation and rules

Concept of size/ small and large numbers

Critical thinking


The aspirin calculation

The Aspirin Calculation

Group 8

Hunter Miske

Robert Stady

Scott Weber


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

Assuming the aspirin is a true cylinder (using the center height) how many aspirin molecules are in the tablet?

  • Given that a 200 mg tablet has these dimensions

Radius = 5.15 mm

Diameter = 10.3 mm

Height = 4.2 mm


Volume of a cylinder area of base x height volume r 2 h

Volume of a Cylinder = area of base x heightVolume = π R2 h

Vol. = 3.14 x (5.15mm)2 x 4.2 mm = 350 mm3

Change units from cubic millimeters (mm3)to cubic nanometers (nm3)

Assume 1 nm spherical aspirin molecule occupies 1 cubic nm of space

Divide volume of cylinder by volume of aspirin spheres


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

How long would it take to assemble the aspirin molecule by molecule?Time required = number required ÷ rate of assembly

61.6 million years


How big is a billion or how small is a nano

How big is a billion or how small is a nano?

Counting to 1 billion at 1 “number” stated per second would take…..

32 years!!!!

The distance from Minneapolis to Canada is about 241 miles….1 billionth – or a nano of that distance is about ……….

1 hundredth of an inch.


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

Working at the nanoscale …….

Requires the combination of all traditional science

And

It impacts all of the traditional sciences


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

Material

Science

Engineering

Physics

NanoScience

Nanotechnology

Chemistry

Medicine

Biology


The secret

The Secret

  • Molecules are made of atoms

  • Atoms are made up of electrons, protons and neutrons

  • Electrons and protons are “charged”

  • Opposites attract/likes repel

  • And…

  • Moving charges can create a magnetic field (and vice versa)


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

Atomic (electronic) structure

Molecular structure

Physical characteristics

Electrical characteristics

Biological characteristics


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

Learning and Understanding

Leads to

Replication and Application


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

Laser structuring of water-repellent biomimetic surfaces

Marios Barberoglou, Panagiotis Tzanetakis, Costas Fotakis, Emmanuel Stratakis, Emmanuel Spanakis, Vassilia Zorba, Sophia Rhizopoulou, and Spiros Anastasiadis

A water-resistant surface inspired by the lotus leaf could enable applications in microfluidics, underwater coatings, and controlled deposition.

19 January 2009, SPIE Newsroom. DOI: 10.1117/2.1200901.1441


Superhydrophobic shpb

Superhydrophobic (SHPB)

Superhydrophobic – having a water contact angle of greater than 150°

Water repellent surface

Achieved by surface nanotexturing and low surface energy

Ref: IsurTec


Background endotracheal tubes

Background – Endotracheal Tubes

Endotracheal Tubes are PVC tubes with a balloon cuff. Inner diameters range from 3-10 mm.

Ref: IsurTec


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

Air drying: Water (dyed blue) and hexadecane (dyed red), an oil, bead up on an omniphobic surface, which repels all liquids. The droplets in this photo, which are separated from the surface by air pockets, are about three millimeters in diameter. Credit: Anish Tuteja/Wonjae Cho

MIT TR November 2008

Staying dry: A chemically treated plastic surface is rough on the nanoscale, forcing water droplets to form beads that can roll off. GE researchers have now done the same with metal. Credit: GE Global Research Center

MIT TR October 2008


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

Hysitron

Nanomechanical

Measurement

System


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

Dentin-Enamel Junction (DEJ)

20um

0

20um

Tooth: Dentin-Enamel Junction

Pictures Courtesy of H Fong, Univ. of Washington


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

IBM STM gallery


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

TEM image

Dislocations in Aluminum Nitride

U of MN


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

So what are we finding out?


The secret1

The Secret

  • Molecules are made of atoms

  • Atoms are made up of electrons, protons and neutrons

  • Electrons and protons are “charged”

  • Opposites attract/likes repel

  • And…

  • Moving charges can create a magnetic field (and vice versa)

  • And….

  • They are moving all of the time

  • And…

  • Most atoms are not spherical


Forces and interactions

Forces and Interactions

  • Electrostatic

  • Magnetic

  • Gravitational

  • Thermal

  • Vibration

  • Adhesion

  • Surface tension

  • Friction

  • Chemical

  • Quantum


This is important

This is important

  • ALL forces and interactions are present ALL of the time at ALL size scales

  • What does change at different size scales is that the PRIORITY of the forces and interactions will change


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

The origin of van der Walls bonding between water molecules.

(a) The H2O molecule is polar and has a net permanent dipole moment

(b) Attractions between the various dipole moments in water gives rise to

van der Walls bonding


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

Nature. June 2007. Ajayan. P. 1066


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

  • Water in Nanotube

  • Source:  Yury Gogotsi

    • References:

    • Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy Study of Water in Carbon NanopipesM. Pía Rossi, Haihui Ye, Yury Gogotsi, Sundar Babu, Patrick Ndungu, and Jean-Claude Bradley Nano Lett.; 2004; ASAP Web Release Date: 15-Apr-2004; (Letter) DOI: 10.1021/nl049688uDescription:

    • The ability of the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) to condense and evaporate liquids has enabled the in situ dynamic study of condensation, evaporation and transport of water inside carbon nanotubes. It has been possible to see liquid menisci inside straight, CVD-fabricated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having disordered walls. From the measured contact angles, it is clear that these CNTs are hydrophilic. Complex meniscus shapes and slow liquid dynamics due to water confinement and strong interaction with tube walls have been observed. The above ESEM images show the dynamic behavior of a water plug close to the open end of a nanotube. The meniscus shape changes when, at a constant stage temperature, the vapor pressure of water in the chamber is changed (a) 5.5 Torr, (b) 5.8 Torr, (c) 6.0 Torr, (d) 5.8 Torr and (e) 5.7 Torr, where the meniscus returns to the shape seen in (a). The asymmetrical shape of the meniscus, especially the complex shape of the meniscus on the right side in (a, e), is a result of the difference in the vapor pressure caused by the open left end and closed right end of the tube. (f) TEM image showing a similar plug shape in a closed CNT under pressure.


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

How atoms are “put together” with each other will

determine their properties


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

  • CdS Nanoparticles on Polymer Microspheres

  • Source: Yuan-Chih Chu and Chuh-Yung Chen, et. al.

    • References:

    • Yuan-Chih Chu, Cheng-Chien Wang, Yao-Hui Huang and Chuh-Yung Chen.  "Preparation and characterization of luminescent CdS nanoparticles immobilized on poly(St-co-GMA-IDA) polymer microspheres." Nanotechnology16 (4), 376, (2005).

    • Description:

    • Luminescent CdS (Cadmium Sulfide) nanoparticles immobilized on copolymer microspheres were produced by the chemical precipitation of poly(St-co-GMA-IDA)–Cd2+ (PSG–Cd2+) complexes. PSG latex with GMA-IDA has chelating groups within the copolymer latex with coordination sites for chelating metal ions, at which CdS particles were grown. Using ethanol as a cosolvent improved both the particle monodispersity and the surface charge. The size distribution, morphology and structure of CdS nanoparticles were measured by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The growth kinetics of CdS nanoparticles were studied by TEM and obtaining photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The size and morphology of CdS particles were influenced by the amount of the chelating, iminodiacetic acid group on the surface of the copolymer microsphere, the concentration of Cd2+ ions and the pH. The shown PSG-A3–CdS sample which was formed from ultrafine CdS particles with mean diameters below 5 nm immobilized on the surface of copolymer microspheres, emitted photons with a higher energy than other samples in this investigation.


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

Sporting Equipment

AccuFlex® Evolution Golf Shaft

Orca PFLEX™ Fullsleeve Wetsuit

Nanodynamics MX™ Golf Balls

Wilson® Tour Davis Cup Official Tennis Ball

golfgearreview.com

businessweek.com

Babolat® NS™ Tour Tennis Racket

Stealth CNT® Baseball Bat

Tennisplaza.com

gearandtraining.com

BMC Racing Fourstroke FS01

Amazon.com

dickssportinggoods.com

Nitro Hockey Sticks

XLC Nanotech Crampon

hollywoodprobicycles.com

Nanodesu X Bowling Ball

gearflogger.com

Nanotechproject.org

accountsupport.com


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

Portion of a Single Walled Carbon Nanotube (SWNT)


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

A.

B.

Materials Today. April 2007. Mirfakhrai. P. 34


Electronics

I-pod

ATI Radeon HD 3870 X2 Graphics Card

Electronics

Xbox 360

16Gb NAND Flash Memory

videolan.org

Samsung.com

Intel 45nm Silicon Wafer Processor

Universal Display Corporation®

Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED)

Planet82™ SMPD Image Sensor

(Flash-less Photography)

ziffdavisinternet.com

gizmodo.com

pennnet.com


Ibm copper cmos 7s technology

IBM Copper CMOS 7S Technology


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

Three levels of interconnects in a flash memory chip. Different levels are connected through vias.

|SOURCE: Courtesy of Dr. Don Scansen, Semiconductor Insights, Kanata, Ontario, Canada


Pedestrian protection airbags

Pedestrian Protection Airbags


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

Nano Silver Spray

Benny the antimicrobial bear

Home

Antibacterial Kitchenware

overstock.com

Clean Shoe Locker

Nanotea

nanowerk.com

freeamerican.com

diytrade.com

Nano TiO2 Air Purifiers

KLENZ.NU

Daewoo® Washing Machine

Premium Top Mount Refrigerator

Nano Phytoncide Toothpaste

tradenote.net

sharp.net

tootoo.com

daewoo-electronics.de


Cosmetics beauty

GreenYarn G-moist soft cloth mask

Chemical-Free Sunscreen SPF 15

Nano Salon Pro 2000

Cosmetics/beauty

Nano Anti Aging Cream

alibaba.com

greenyarnstore.com

BIONOVA Cosmetics

tradenote.net

Cosil Nano Beauty Soap

Infiniti Nano Silver Strengthener

segaei.com

beautymecca.blogspot.com

essentialgearguide.com


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

Antimicrobial nano-bag

Emergency Filtration Products NanoMask®

Dog Gone Smart bed

Misc

nanotechproject.org

DeWalt Cordless Power-tool Set

techxpress.net

Plastic Beer Bottles

flupharmacy.com

Deletum 5000 Anti-graffiti paint

atr.com

nanotechproject.org

Antibacterial Lock

Acticoat® Wound Dressings

Ain Supplio Pencil (fragrence pencil lead)

ebay.com

allegromedical.com


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

Microarrays Chips and Slides


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

Hair bundles are the ear's detectors. (a) The bundle in this hair cell from a turtle is a pyramidal structure composed of stereocilia, which are connected by tip links.

(b) When the bundle is displaced, the tip links get stretched and pull open the transduction channels, thereby generating an electrical signal due to positively charged ions. Myosin motor proteins attached to the channels may be involved in active amplification. (Picture credit: Carole M Hackney/Keele University; see Fettiplace et al. in Further Reading


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

Bone Cell Proliferation on Carbon NanotubesLaura P. Zanello, Bin Zhao, Hui Hu, and Robert C. Haddonpp 562 - 567; (Letter) DOI: 10.1021/nl051861e


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

Three prostatecancer cells have taken up fluorescently labeled nanoparticles (shown in red). The cells' nuclei and cytoskeletons are stained blue and green, respectively.

Similarly designed targeted nanoparticles containing a chemotherapeutic drug are capable of getting inside cancer cells and releasing a lethal dose of the drug and eradicating tumors.

MIT TR Single Shot Chemo

April 2006


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

Chemistry

Physics

Photonics

  • Quantum Dot Rainbow

  • Source: Andrey Rogach

    • References:

    • Yu. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, S. A. Filonovich, M. J. M. Gomes, D. V. Talapin, A. L. Rogach, A. Eychmüller. "Up-Conversion Luminescence via a Below-gap State in CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots."  Physica E , 17, 99-100.2003


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

NanoLetters

May, 2007

Kobayashi et.al.


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

Live bovine pulmonary epithelial cells

Fluorescence microscopyMichael Janes; Invitrogen Corp., Eugene, Ore., U.S.A.

Tenth Prize


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

  • A word about nano and medicine

  • Diagnostic

  • Prevention

  • Treatment

Years of research

Thousands of options

15+ years of clinical trials


Chun wang department of biomedical engineering university of minnesota

Blood flow

Cell membrane

Lysosome

E

pH<7

Golgi

E

E

E

pH<7

pH<7

Endosome

Solid tumor

Nucleus

Lymphatic vessel

Drug delivery targeting acidic solid tumor tissue and intracellular endocytic vesicles

Chun Wang, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota

(EPR effect)


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

Polyethylene glycol-b-Poly(aminoethyl methacrylate): PEG-b-PAEMA

O

C

CH

O

3

O

x

n

O

O

DNA

NH

2

TEM

Chun Wang, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota

PEG-b-PAEMA75/DNA complex

N/P=8


Nanotechnology can

Nanotechnology can…….

  • Excite students in STEM

  • Give them applications of the course content

  • Pose challenging multi-disciplinary problems

  • Develop team work skills

  • Improve critical thinking

  • Be easily integrated into traditional classes

  • Instructor guides available (free) for the first 2 DCTC Nano Courses


Nanotechnology what is it the challenges and opportunties

Thank you!!!

[email protected]


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