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Contents. 1.   Mechanisms of ultrafast light-matter interaction A.  Dipole interaction B.   Displacive excitation of phonons C.  Impulsive stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering D.   Scattering and Diffraction 2.  Ultrafast optical-frequency methods A.   Ellipsometry

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Contents

1.  Mechanismsof ultrafast light-matter interaction

A.  Dipole interaction

B.  Displaciveexcitationofphonons

C.  Impulsive stimulated Raman andBrillouinscattering

D.  ScatteringandDiffraction

2.  Ultrafast optical-frequencymethods

A.  Ellipsometry

B.  Broadband techniques

C.  Harmonicgeneration

D.  Fluorescence

E.  2-D Spectroscopies

3.  THz-frequencymethods

A.  Mid-IR andTHzinteractionswithsolids

B.  Differencefrequencymixing

C.  Optical rectification

4.  Ultrafast VUV and x-rayfrequencymethods

A.  Photoemissionspectroscopy

B.  X-rayabsorptionspectroscopies

C. Coherentimaging

D.  X-raydiffraction

5.  Electronbasedmethods

A.  Ultrafast electrondiffraction

B.  Electronspectroscopies


Time scales in solid statephysics

Opticalcommunication

Magnetic

recording

High harmonic

generation

Micro electronics

Ti: Saphire lasers

10ns

1ns

100fs

10fs

1fs

100ps

10ps

1ps

Latticevibrations

Ferromagnetic

resonance

Ultrafast

demagnetization

Excitation of

an atom

Recombination of

Electron hole pairs

Thermali-zation


tp<1 ps

te < 0.1ps

tel ~ 1 ps

Electrons

Phonons

Tsl ~ 100 ps?

Tes = ?

ts

Spin

The solid and its excitations


tp<1 ps

te < 0.1ps

tel ~ 1 ps

Electrons

Phonons

Tsl ~ 100 ps?

Tes = ?

ts

Spin

The solid and its excitations


Fast light source

Slow detector

Fast detector or fast source

Slow light source

Fast detector


pump & probe technique: stroboscopic, needs repeatable process!

time base

pump

adjustable

delay

No cats were harmed in our experiments!

probe

Courtesy of A. Kirilyuk, U Delft


Pump-Probe techniques


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