Chaparral
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http://cpluhna.nau.edu/images/semiaridgrasslands92rw.jpg. Chaparral. (a.k.a. Temperate Shrubland ) Olivia Gehrke. Typically found in coastal regions that are bordered by deserts Ex) southern California Mediterranean.

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Chaparral

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Chaparral

http://cpluhna.nau.edu/images/semiaridgrasslands92rw.jpg

Chaparral

(a.k.a. Temperate Shrubland)

Olivia Gehrke


Chaparral

  • Typically found in coastal regions that are bordered by deserts

  • Ex)

    • southern California

    • Mediterranean

http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbi101/34_08TerrestrialBiomes-L%20copy.jpg


Overview

Overview

  • Abiotic

  • Rocky

  • Lots of constant sunlight

  • Many hills

  • Biotic

  • Temperate shrubland

  • Dense growths of

    • Low-growing evergreen shrubs

    • Small trees with leathery leaves (reduce evaporation)

http://www.californiachaparral.org/images/555_PS-Chamise-RS-chaparral.jpg


Climate

Climate

  • Mild, moist, but doesn’t get a lot of precipitation

    • 10-17 inches per year (mostly in winter)

  • Summer=hot & dry

  • Temperature usually mild but sometimes reaches hot/cold extremes

    • Average range: 30-70 degrees Fahrenheit

http://betterphoto.typepad.com/.a/6a00e5501d97a488330147e0f07ee8970b-800wi


Chaparral

Soil

  • Thin, rocky layer on top of subsoil

    • Subsoil consists of clay or rock that holds moisture

      • Needs to hold moisture b/c summers in the chaparral can be very dry

        • Plants use moisture in the soil due to the limited amount of precipitation

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_wWY3RnqSbnU/S_TJlorkiDI/AAAAAAAAAFU/OKv8UzJEcq8/s1600/chaparral.JPG


Dominant plants

Dominant Plants

  • Blue oak

  • Coyote brush

  • Common sagebrush

  • manzanita

http://ucanr.edu/sites/scmg/files/30291display.jpg

http://www.igoterra.com/photo/999/012115.JPG


Plant adaptations

Plant Adaptations

  • Chaparral biome is known for having periodic fires, so some plant life has adapted to tolerate the fires.

  • Some plants are fire resistant

    • Coyote brush leaves’ chemical make-up prevents them from catching fire

  • Plants have seeds that mostly sprout following a fire

    • Fire poppy

  • Plants have to adapt to large variations in temperature

    • Blue oak can survive at 100 degrees Fahrenheit for several weeks

http://www.laspilitas.com/images/grid24_24/3470/s/images/plants/304/Eschscholzia_californica-4.jpg


Dominant animals

Dominant Animals

  • Black-tailed jackrabbit

  • Grey fox

  • Wild goat

  • Golden jackal

  • Cactus wren

  • Spotted skunk

http://www.tringa.org/images/9913500129_Black-tailed_Jackrabbit_10-20-2007_2.jpg

http://www.animalspot.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Golden-jackal.jpg

http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/ibex_bezoar.jpg

http://www.nickdunlop.com/data/photos/381_1greyfox1.jpg


Animal adaptations

Animal Adaptations

  • Have to be able to cope with fires

    • Cactus wren breed in shrubs freshly recovering from being burned

      • Learned to make use of scorched environment after a fire

  • Black-tailed jackrabbit

    • Able to withstand large variation in temperature; regulates body heat by increasing/decreasing blood flow in their very large ears

    • Feed only at night when it’s cooler

    • Digest food twice; eat their waste in order to get moisture out of it

  • Modified diet for times of limited food sources

    • Golden jackal adapted to eating some insects, even though it’s not part of their normal day-to-day diet

http://www.saguaro-juniper.com/i_and_i/mammals/rabbitsNhares/Jackrabbit.jpg


Ecological interactions

Ecological Interactions

http://www.lbah.com/images/RwandaTanzania2011/Serengeti/JackalGazelle-25.jpg

  • Birds nest in low-lying, thick shrubs

    • Protective

  • Jackal is predator so keeps rodent and bird population regulated

  • Wild goat also prey of jackal


Human impact problems

Human Impact & Problems

  • Humans build houses in chaparral

    • Dangerous for humans because of the risk of mudslides and fires

    • Also take measures to prevent fires, which some chaparral organisms need to reproduce

  • Though some organisms need fire, most don’t, so careless human behavior causing rapid, long-lasting fires can kill off a lot of non-fire-resistant organisms

    • Too much fire=depletion of chaparral; native species killed; opportunity for invasive species to take over

http://www.biosbcc.net/b100plant/img/SW/FIRE02.JPG


Sources

Sources

  • http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/communities/chaparral

  • http://blueplanetbiomes.org/chaparral_climate_page.htm

  • http://californiachaparral.org/threatstochaparral.html


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