How do all Americans help with the war effort?. U.S. Mobilizes for Defense. U.S. Needs More Manpower. Selective Service System drafts 10 mill. (need to fight two fronts). Expanding the Military.
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How do all Americans help with the war effort?
U.S. Mobilizes for Defense
Expanding the Military
- Factories cease normal production and begin producing war-related products
- Factories begin to produce tanks, planes, and boats, bottling companies made shells, textile factories made uniforms
1) Office of Price Administration: fought inflation by freezing wages, prices and rents, rationed food
2) War Production Board: rationed fuel, rubber, metal and plastic
3) Treasury Dept: issued war bonds, 1942 Revenue act raised taxes on wealthy to 88%, middle/low income now pay income tax
4) Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act: Limited rights of unions to strike, allowed President to takeover striking plants
The 442nd Regimental Combat Team, the famed Japanese-American unit, earned more than 18,000 individual decorations including:
one Medal of Honor,
53 Distinguished Service Crosses,
588 Silver Stars,
5,200 Bronze Star Medals,
9,486 Purple Hearts,
eight Presidential Unit Citations (the nation's top award for combat units).
In June 2000, President Clinton awarded an additional 20 Medals of Honor to members of the 100th Battalion and 442nd Regimental Combat Team. This was the result of a re-examination of the files of dozens of Japanese-American soldiers to see if any of them might have been denied awards because of possible prejudice. One of these recipients was Hawaii's U.S. Senator Daniel Inouye.
Mexican-Americans in WWII
US Army Air Corps enlists African Americans for the 1st time, but units are segregated
Tuskegee Airmen: 99th Pursuit Squadron Pilots were trained at Tuskegee Army Air Field in Tuskegee, Alabama
Faced discrimination but many victories against the Germans
The combat record of the Tuskegee Airmen
speaks for itself:
· Over 15,000 combat sorties
· 111 German airplanes destroyed in the air, another 150 on the ground
· 950 railcars, trucks, and other motor vehicles destroyed
· 1 destroyer sunk by P-47 machine gun fire
· Sixty-six pilots killed in action or accidents
· Thirty-two pilots downed and captured, POWs
· A nearly perfect record of not losing U.S. bombers, a unique achievement
· 150 Distinguished Flying Crosses earned
· 744 Air Medals
· 8 Purple Hearts
· 14 Bronze Stars