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Goals and Measurements (Part of Planning). This is one of the hardest topic for “lower level” managers to either appreciate or accept (**More meaningful at higher Level management**). Goals and Measurements. Now that we have (completed requirements & WBS)

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goals and measurements part of planning
Goals and Measurements(Part of Planning)
  • This is one of the hardest topic for “lower level” managers to either appreciate or accept

(**More meaningful at higher

Level management**)

goals and measurements
Goals and Measurements
  • Now that we have (completed requirements & WBS)
    • defined the deliverables and
    • analyzed the tasks to complete the deliverables
    • We need to characterizethese deliverables & the project:
      • the deliverables in terms of “goals”
      • the project in terms of “goals”
    • Without “Goals” there is really nothing to manage
    • Goals are expressed through some attribute:

(well defined attribute so that it is)

      • “validatable”
      • “verifiable”

Usually, this mean measurableand trackable

a review on metric measurement
A “Review” on Metric/Measurement
  • Must clearly define the attribute of interestbefore measuring it
    • e.g. length of a table or size of software program

2. Define the metric(unit of measurement):

    • Unit of measurement may be :
      • Inches or (square inches or cubic inches)
      • Lines of code or FP or (number of distinct variables)
      • “squigley-goo”

3. Define the measuring act(the act of counting through using the metric)

    • Placing a devise, “ruler,” that is marked with the metric next to the subject item and count the number of units of measurement for length
    • Counting the physical lines of statements end-marked by “;”
metric via gqm example
Metric via GQM* Example
  • Goal : Measure the Size of Software
  • Question: What is the size of a software in terms of its:
    • Data files (internal logical files, external file interface)
    • Transactions (input, output, query)
  • Metrics: Function Points ----

* GQM is a methodology invented and advocated by V. Basili of U. of Maryland

well defined goals metric
Well Defined Goals/Metric
  • “Validatable” goal/metric (in terms of attributes of interest)
    • An attributethat is defined, understood and agreed upon
    • A metric for that attributeis agreed upon
    • A specific value of the metricfor that attribute is specified by the customer/team requirements as the “goal”
    • Attainment of that “goal” can be shown
  • Verifiable goal/metric
    • Include the aboveand in addition
    • The measurement process(monitoring) can be shown
    • The recorded value of the metric used for the goal is kept and any transformations needed in the derivation of the metric is traceable and demonstrable
consider a project goal on schedule
Consider a Project Goal --- “On Schedule”
  • Define the “goal attribute” ----- project schedule:
    • meeting allmajor and finalmilestone dates for 3 defined deliverables of i) final design specification, ii) pre-tested source code, iii) final system tested source code
  • Validate the goal:
    • “schedule” Attribute is --- “meeting the major and final milestone dates”
    • metric is ---- calendar date
    • “on/meeting schedule” is defined as: [ comparing: “actual” delivery date(6pm) = “scheduled” calendar date(6pm)]
    • Attainment can be shown (compared) for all three deliverables at the milestone dates
  • Verify the goal:
    • Measure the 3 project deliverables status each day.
    • Trace the completion dates of the 3 deliverables by milestone dates
    • If there are any transformation in terms of -- “% of meeting schedule” by counting the number of times major milestones and final date were met by 3 deliverables - - - can be shown.
example of a tougher validatable goal
Example: of a “tougher” Validatable Goal
  • The Product should be “user friendly”
    • Understand and define the user-friendliness attributes
      • Screen looks prettiness, navigation flow smoothness, response timeliness, meeting standards, informational messages usefulness, etc.
    • Agree on an attribute definition from above choices
      • Screen looks and the conformance to industry UI standards on screen layout
    • Define a metric for that attribute
      • Number of non-standard (standard) icon and non standard (standard)positioning of icons on screens
    • The Customer requirements goal may be:
      • 100% conformance to standard on all main screens or
      • 98% conformance on all message boxes and information

sub-screens

- The attainment of this goal can be shown through examining the icons and screens (match std. or not)

example a tougher verifiable goal metrics
Example: a “tougher” Verifiable Goal/Metrics
  • The goal of “user-friendliness” as defined is verifiable
    • 100% of main screens conforms to standard
    • 98% of message boxes and sub-screens conforms to standard
  • We can show the actual measurement activity, or monitoring process as screens are developed (weekly ?):
    • All main screens
    • All the sub-screens and message boxes
    • Show and trace all the non-conformance and count the number of non-conforming screens and message boxes
    • Show the computation of percentages from the measurements
software product project goals
Software Product & Project Goals
  • Software Product Goals
    • “Excellent” Quality
    • “Good”Usability
    • “Adequate” Maintainability
    • etc.
  • Software (Non-product) Project Goals
    • “Absolute”Schedule Integrity
    • “Meets” Cost Target
    • “Good” Productivity
    • etc.
consider product s adequate maintainability goal
Consider Product’s“Adequate Maintainability” Goal
  • Ensure clear understanding and agreement on the attribute, “maintainability”
    • Use industry standard if available (most likely not ---)
    • In software, software engineers together with customers may often need to devise an applicable description
  • Ensure that the goal “adequate” is understood and defined
    • What is the metric ----- e.g. cohesion and coupling measurements?
    • How would it be measured - (for verification)
    • What value of the metric equates to “adequate” - (for validation)
  • Software Project Manager should not necessarily define these, but ensure that it is properlyunderstood, defined, and used.
validatable and verifiable goal
Validatable and Verifiable Goal
  • Once the metric for “maintainability” is defined and the goal “adequate” is defined in terms of the values of the metric :
    • Can that goal, “adequate,” be validated via?
      • Comparing the measured results with the goal
    • Can it be verified via?
      • Showing the measurement process
      • Showing the measurement results (monitoring results)
      • Showing and tracing any necessary “computations” on the measured results
consider a project goal
Consider a “Project” Goal
  • Consider a project goal such as developers’ “goodproductivity”
    • Ensure that all understand and agree on the projectattribute, “productivity”
    • Ensure that all understand and agree on the goal, “good”.
      • What is the metric
      • How is it measured
      • What is the value of the metric that equates to “good”
validatable and verifiable goal1
Validatable and Verifiable Goal
  • Once the metric for “productivity” is defined and the goal “good” is defined in terms of the values of the metric :
    • Can that goal, “good,” be validated via?
      • Comparing the measured results with the goal
    • Can it be verified via?
      • Showing the measurement process
      • Showing the measurement results (monitoring results)
      • Showing and tracing any necessary “computations” on the measured results
managing inter related attributes
Managing Inter-related Attributes
  • Inter-relationships among attributes:
    • Product attribute to Product attribute
      • product quality and product functionality
    • Product attribute to Project attribute
      • product functionality and project cost
    • Project attribute to Project attribute
      • project schedule and project cost
  • “Managing” multiple attributes and their inter-relationships is both interesting and difficult
consider some examples of inter relationships
Consider Some Examples of Inter-Relationships
  • Project Schedule vs Project Cost
    • Improve on Schedule with Increased resources (Cost)?
    • Improve on Cost but still “meeting” the schedule goal ?
  • Product Quality vs Project Productivity
    • Improve productivity with improved quality ?
    • Improve quality with increased productivity ?
  • Product Usability vs Product Functionalextra-featureness
    • Increase usability with increased functions (full-feature)?
    • Improved functional completeness with improved usability?

Are these supportive or conflictinggoals?

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