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Goals and Measurements (Part of Planning). This is one of the hardest topic for “lower level” managers to either appreciate or accept (**More meaningful at higher Level management**). Goals and Measurements. Now that we have (completed requirements & WBS)

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Goals and measurements part of planning
Goals and Measurements(Part of Planning)

  • This is one of the hardest topic for “lower level” managers to either appreciate or accept

    (**More meaningful at higher

    Level management**)


Goals and measurements
Goals and Measurements

  • Now that we have (completed requirements & WBS)

    • defined the deliverables and

    • analyzed the tasks to complete the deliverables

    • We need to characterizethese deliverables & the project:

      • the deliverables in terms of “goals”

      • the project in terms of “goals”

    • Without “Goals” there is really nothing to manage

    • Goals are expressed through some attribute:

      (well defined attribute so that it is)

      • “validatable”

      • “verifiable”

Usually, this mean measurableand trackable


A review on metric measurement
A “Review” on Metric/Measurement

  • Must clearly define the attribute of interestbefore measuring it

    • e.g. length of a table or size of software program

      2. Define the metric(unit of measurement):

    • Unit of measurement may be :

      • Inches or (square inches or cubic inches)

      • Lines of code or FP or (number of distinct variables)

      • “squigley-goo”

        3. Define the measuring act(the act of counting through using the metric)

    • Placing a devise, “ruler,” that is marked with the metric next to the subject item and count the number of units of measurement for length

    • Counting the physical lines of statements end-marked by “;”


Metric via gqm example
Metric via GQM* Example

  • Goal : Measure the Size of Software

  • Question: What is the size of a software in terms of its:

    • Data files (internal logical files, external file interface)

    • Transactions (input, output, query)

  • Metrics: Function Points ----

* GQM is a methodology invented and advocated by V. Basili of U. of Maryland


Well defined goals metric
Well Defined Goals/Metric

  • “Validatable” goal/metric (in terms of attributes of interest)

    • An attributethat is defined, understood and agreed upon

    • A metric for that attributeis agreed upon

    • A specific value of the metricfor that attribute is specified by the customer/team requirements as the “goal”

    • Attainment of that “goal” can be shown

  • Verifiable goal/metric

    • Include the aboveand in addition

    • The measurement process(monitoring) can be shown

    • The recorded value of the metric used for the goal is kept and any transformations needed in the derivation of the metric is traceable and demonstrable


Consider a project goal on schedule
Consider a Project Goal --- “On Schedule”

  • Define the “goal attribute” ----- project schedule:

    • meeting allmajor and finalmilestone dates for 3 defined deliverables of i) final design specification, ii) pre-tested source code, iii) final system tested source code

  • Validate the goal:

    • “schedule” Attribute is --- “meeting the major and final milestone dates”

    • metric is ---- calendar date

    • “on/meeting schedule” is defined as: [ comparing: “actual” delivery date(6pm) = “scheduled” calendar date(6pm)]

    • Attainment can be shown (compared) for all three deliverables at the milestone dates

  • Verify the goal:

    • Measure the 3 project deliverables status each day.

    • Trace the completion dates of the 3 deliverables by milestone dates

    • If there are any transformation in terms of -- “% of meeting schedule” by counting the number of times major milestones and final date were met by 3 deliverables - - - can be shown.


Example of a tougher validatable goal
Example: of a “tougher” Validatable Goal

  • The Product should be “user friendly”

    • Understand and define the user-friendliness attributes

      • Screen looks prettiness, navigation flow smoothness, response timeliness, meeting standards, informational messages usefulness, etc.

    • Agree on an attribute definition from above choices

      • Screen looks and the conformance to industry UI standards on screen layout

    • Define a metric for that attribute

      • Number of non-standard (standard) icon and non standard (standard)positioning of icons on screens

    • The Customer requirements goal may be:

      • 100% conformance to standard on all main screens or

      • 98% conformance on all message boxes and information

        sub-screens

        - The attainment of this goal can be shown through examining the icons and screens (match std. or not)


Example a tougher verifiable goal metrics
Example: a “tougher” Verifiable Goal/Metrics

  • The goal of “user-friendliness” as defined is verifiable

    • 100% of main screens conforms to standard

    • 98% of message boxes and sub-screens conforms to standard

  • We can show the actual measurement activity, or monitoring process as screens are developed (weekly ?):

    • All main screens

    • All the sub-screens and message boxes

    • Show and trace all the non-conformance and count the number of non-conforming screens and message boxes

    • Show the computation of percentages from the measurements


Software product project goals
Software Product & Project Goals

  • Software Product Goals

    • “Excellent” Quality

    • “Good”Usability

    • “Adequate” Maintainability

    • etc.

  • Software (Non-product) Project Goals

    • “Absolute”Schedule Integrity

    • “Meets” Cost Target

    • “Good” Productivity

    • etc.


Consider product s adequate maintainability goal
Consider Product’s“Adequate Maintainability” Goal

  • Ensure clear understanding and agreement on the attribute, “maintainability”

    • Use industry standard if available (most likely not ---)

    • In software, software engineers together with customers may often need to devise an applicable description

  • Ensure that the goal “adequate” is understood and defined

    • What is the metric ----- e.g. cohesion and coupling measurements?

    • How would it be measured - (for verification)

    • What value of the metric equates to “adequate” - (for validation)

  • Software Project Manager should not necessarily define these, but ensure that it is properlyunderstood, defined, and used.


Validatable and verifiable goal
Validatable and Verifiable Goal

  • Once the metric for “maintainability” is defined and the goal “adequate” is defined in terms of the values of the metric :

    • Can that goal, “adequate,” be validated via?

      • Comparing the measured results with the goal

    • Can it be verified via?

      • Showing the measurement process

      • Showing the measurement results (monitoring results)

      • Showing and tracing any necessary “computations” on the measured results


Consider a project goal
Consider a “Project” Goal

  • Consider a project goal such as developers’ “goodproductivity”

    • Ensure that all understand and agree on the projectattribute, “productivity”

    • Ensure that all understand and agree on the goal, “good”.

      • What is the metric

      • How is it measured

      • What is the value of the metric that equates to “good”


Validatable and verifiable goal1
Validatable and Verifiable Goal

  • Once the metric for “productivity” is defined and the goal “good” is defined in terms of the values of the metric :

    • Can that goal, “good,” be validated via?

      • Comparing the measured results with the goal

    • Can it be verified via?

      • Showing the measurement process

      • Showing the measurement results (monitoring results)

      • Showing and tracing any necessary “computations” on the measured results


Managing inter related attributes
Managing Inter-related Attributes

  • Inter-relationships among attributes:

    • Product attribute to Product attribute

      • product quality and product functionality

    • Product attribute to Project attribute

      • product functionality and project cost

    • Project attribute to Project attribute

      • project schedule and project cost

  • “Managing” multiple attributes and their inter-relationships is both interesting and difficult


Consider some examples of inter relationships
Consider Some Examples of Inter-Relationships

  • Project Schedule vs Project Cost

    • Improve on Schedule with Increased resources (Cost)?

    • Improve on Cost but still “meeting” the schedule goal ?

  • Product Quality vs Project Productivity

    • Improve productivity with improved quality ?

    • Improve quality with increased productivity ?

  • Product Usability vs Product Functionalextra-featureness

    • Increase usability with increased functions (full-feature)?

    • Improved functional completeness with improved usability?

Are these supportive or conflictinggoals?


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