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PHYSICSMR. BALDWIN REVIEW10/4/13

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Aim: What have we done so far? Let’s review.

Do Now: Please take out your notebooks and make a list of what we have done so far?

HOMEWORK:

Prepare for TEST on Monday 10/7/13.

A brief review sheet will be posted online.

- Rules of Significant figures.
- Scientific and decimal notation
- 7 basic Units of measurement
- Precision & Accuracy
- Order of magnitude
- Unit conversions between metric and BEU; between metric
- Scalars and vectors
- Definition & Components of vectors
- Examples of both: Speed, distance, and time are scalar quantities; Velocity, displacement and acceleration are all vectors.

- Making line graphs
- Constant and accelerated motion.
- Freefall Motion
- Distance & velocity-time graphs.

7 Basic Units of Measurement

In Physics, we will be working in the SI system, where the basic units are kilograms, meters, and seconds (m.k.s).

METRIC PREFIXES revised

These are the standard SI prefixes for indicating powers of 10.

CHECK

Can you give any common everyday examples where these prefixes are used?

Section Check

Question

A car is moving at a speed of 90 km/h. What is the speed of the car in m/s? (Hint: Use Dimensional Analysis)

- 2.5×101 m/s
- 1.5×103 m/s
- 2.5 m/s
- 1.5×102 m/s

Order of Magnitude: Rapid Estimating

A quick way to estimate a calculated quantity is to round off all numbers to one significant figure and then calculate. Your result should at least be the right order of magnitude; this can be expressed by rounding it off to the nearest power of 10.

Section Check

Calculate approximately how many basketballs (diameter = 75cm) can fit in this classroom randomly AND orderly stacked one atop the other?

Accuracy & Precision

- Accuracy:
- How close you are to the actual value
- Depends on the person measuring
- Calculated by the formula:

- % Error = (YV – AV) x 100 ÷ AV
- Where: YV is YOUR measured Value&AV is the Accepted Value

- Precision:
- How finely tuned your measurements are or how close they can be to each other
- Depends on the measuring tool
- Determined by the number of significant digits

Components of Vectors

If the components are perpendicular, they can be found using trigonometric functions.

Addition of Vectors: Resultant

For vectors in same or opposite direction, simple addition or subtraction are all that is needed.

You do need to be careful about the signs, as the figure indicates.

- Graphs are made using pairs of numbers (x,y).
- independent variables are plotted on the x-axis.
- dependent variables are plotted on the y-axis.
- Range isthe difference between smallest and largest value for a variable
- Scale determined by dividing the range by the number of data points and rounding off to the nearest integer.
- Titles must be give to graph &placed on both axes

Uniform & Accelerated Motion

- Uniform motion refers to motion that has a constant velocity
- Speed & direction remains the same
- Such as your car on cruise control
- Moving at 50 mph on a straight road

- Accelerated motion refers to motion with changing velocity
- As you round a curb
- Hit the gas or brake

Average Speed & Instantaneous Speed

- The instantaneous speed is the speed as given on your speedometer. The speed at that instant.
- Speed given by the speedometer

- The average speed is the total distance traveled by an object divided by the total time taken to travel that distance.

CHECK: Determine the units

Unit: m/s; km/h; mph

Acceleration

Acceleration is the change of velocity divided by time.

Where a: acceleration; vf: final velocity; vi:initial velocity

Determine its Unit.

Unit: m/s2

Uniformly Accelerated Motion

Galileo’s Law of Freely Falling Bodies:

In the absence of air resistance, all objects, regardless of size, shape or mass, fall with the same acceleration.

Finding Speed: What can you say about the slope of the graph at any time?

The slope of the tangent to the distance-time graph at any point is the instantaneous speed at that point.

8.00 m/s

4.00 m/s

Speed-Time Graph of Uniformly Accelerated Motion

Slope gives acceleration of the body at each point.

Slope 2.00 m/s2

4.00 m/s

2.00 s

Graphical Analysis of Linear Motion

CHECK

How would you find the area under the velocity-time graph?

The areabeneath the velocity-time graph gives you the Distance travelled

- TEST YOURSELF…WHAT DO YOU UNDERSTAND?
- SCIENTIFIC & DECIMAL NOTATION
- How do you write a decimal in scientific notation?
- What is the form?

- METRIC PREFIXES
- What are the metric prefixes?
- What values do the symbols represent?

- MOTION
- What is motion?
- How do you measure motion?

- SCALARS & VECTORS
- What is a Scalar?
- What is a Vector?
- Give some examples of both scalar and vector quantities.

- VELOCITY
- What is Velocity?
- What is the formula for Velocity?
- What is the Unit?
- Is it a Scalar or Vector?

- ACCELERATION
- What is Acceleration?
- What is the formula for acceleration?
- What is the unit for acceleration?