Trends and phases of corrections in africa
Download
1 / 19

Trends and Phases of Corrections in Africa - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 71 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Trends and Phases of Corrections in Africa. By Maicibi , N. Alhas (Ph D) Research and Policy Development Advisor (UNAFRI ). Introduction. Current craze for change of the name of the service from Prison to Prison Service then to Correctional

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha

Download Presentation

Trends and Phases of Corrections in Africa

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Trends and Phases of Corrections in Africa

By

Maicibi, N. Alhas (Ph D)

Research and Policy Development Advisor (UNAFRI)


Introduction

  • Current craze for change of the name of the service from Prison to Prison Service then to Correctional

  • The negative connotation and disdain of ‘prison’.

  • The meaning- ‘as a place for those physically confined and deprived of their rights’.

  • Perceptions: individuals and the public


Introduction, cont’d

  • Yesterday Vs Today – African Corrections

  • Yesterday, offenders were managed without incarceration

  • Prisons-like places were mainly for holding purposes

  • They were for enhancing social harmony

  • It was compensation/ conciliation rather than punishment

  • Focus was on both offender and victims

  • Holding ‘imprisonment’ was the alternative to non custodial

  • **Today, focus is mainly on the offender

  • The non custodial are the alternatives**


Africans Vs Europeans

  • Why the practice of incarceration for the 2 groups?

  • For colonised/Africans, it was a holding facility for compensation; while wrongdoing was rectified to get restitution rather than punishment

  • For colonialists/Europeans, it was to control and subdue potential rebellious natives; not for rehabilitation but for economic, political, religious and social subjugation, and means to justify cheap labour.


Phases of Correctional

  • Decarceration: no prisons, correcting within community

  • Incarceration: Prisons were a holding, restraining facility-knife Logic

  • Prisons became a punishment facility-Knife Logic

  • Prisons are now perceived as correctional facility-Needle Logic

    *** All to make communities safer***


Elements of Major Styles of Social Control (A.V:1990:20)


Vision and Mission of Corrections

  • * Vision

  • A correctional service for achieving a crime free Society

  • A Correctional Service of excellence in Africa & beyond

  • As the best provider of custodial and correctional practices

  • As the strongest agent of community protection

  • As the enabler of humane and secure society thru crime prevention

  • **As the nucleus of professional corrections in Africa and a front runner in the world. **


Mission

  • To promote human rights of prisons, and the public through provision of safe and humane custody

  • To contain offenders in human and safe conditions in order to facilitate responsible administration of justice

  • To promote criminal justice institutions’ reforms for a secure society


Mission, cont’d

  • To enable community safety and security through mitigation of the role of offenders

  • To effectively and efficiently provide and maintain a humane custodial and correctional services to inmates.

  • **To pave way for best correctional practice in Africa and beyond.**


Orientations of the Service’s Management

  • Current orientation

    The Reactive Orientation

    Most international instruments only address the two below:

  • Concentration on the inmates:

    Numbers, Rights, Feeding, Welfare

  • Concentration on the infrastructure

    • Facilities, building, amenities

    • Early releases: Parole, probation , pardon, etc

      ####This is reactive#####


Expected Orientation: TheProactive as a multi-actor orientation

  • Concentration on the staff also

    • Welfare

    • Motivation

    • Participation

    • Image boosting

  • Attitudinal change-staff, inmates, public


Correcting outside the facility

  • Extension of the concept of Community Corrections to include Community mobilization as a multi-actor orientation approach: Judiciary, Parliament, Executive

    -Concentration on how to reduce prison congestion through preemptive prevention

    -Using the Not There Alternatives (NTA)


Correcting outside, cont’d

  • ** Some NTAs: **

  • Encouraging diversionary measures

  • Encouraging the African ‘restorative justice’ system

  • Encouraging out of court settlement

  • Encouraging community service

  • Be more open to public


Sensitization of Magistrates and communities on

Community service sentencing option;

fines, acquittals, bails, parole and probation

Creation of mini courts in prisons

Allow inmates engage in political and civic activities


Crime Prevention: A Proactivity

  • Working closely with agencies of crime prevention e.g UNAFRI, UNODC etc

  • Working hard in the community to prevent re-offending/recidivism

  • Constructive engagement of the parliament for review of laws

  • * Borrow Maicibi’s generic formula for fighting crime**


Correctional Refinery

Crime Prevention Steam

NTA

Diversions

ADR

RJS

Out of court

settlement

Community Service

  • Acquittals

    Fines

    Bails

    Parole and probation

Courts (Judiciary)

Prisons


Maicibi generic formula for fighting Crime

B < C

Where:

B => Benefits

Mb - Monetary & economic benefits to the criminal

Pb – Psychological & physiological benefits to the criminal

Sb- Sociological benefits to the criminal

Ec- Ease & level of success in committing the crime

C => Costs

Mt –Monetary & time to commit the crime

Fa – Fear & probability of being apprehended & arrested

Pc – Probability of conviction & its harshness

Lo – Lost opportunities & stigmatization

Key: B Vs C

B > C : Mb+Pb+Sb+ Ec > Mt+Fa+Pc+Lo means that benefits outweigh the costs.

B<C : Mb+Pb+Sb+Ec < Mt+Fa+Pc+Lo means that costs outweigh the benefits

B>Chas a slim chance of deterring crave to commit crime

B<Chas a high chance of deterring crave to commit crime

**Target and strategy should be to increase the Cs and decrease the Bs.


Prisons Facility Tree

Inability for proper containment

Corruption

Diseases

Army of remand inmates

Jail violence/riots

Inadequate programming

Poor service delivery

Overcrowding

Court decisional delays

Recognition and Funding

Corruption

The burden of prove

Neglect of restorative justice

Closed prisons’ system

Poor access to legal Aid

Poverty

NTA


CONCLUSION

  • Thank you for being a wonderful audience

  • MaicibiAlhas(Ph D.)

  • UNAFRI


ad
  • Login