Trends and phases of corrections in africa
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Trends and Phases of Corrections in Africa. By Maicibi , N. Alhas (Ph D) Research and Policy Development Advisor (UNAFRI ). Introduction. Current craze for change of the name of the service from Prison to Prison Service then to Correctional

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Trends and Phases of Corrections in Africa

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Trends and phases of corrections in africa

Trends and Phases of Corrections in Africa

By

Maicibi, N. Alhas (Ph D)

Research and Policy Development Advisor (UNAFRI)


Introduction

Introduction

  • Current craze for change of the name of the service from Prison to Prison Service then to Correctional

  • The negative connotation and disdain of ‘prison’.

  • The meaning- ‘as a place for those physically confined and deprived of their rights’.

  • Perceptions: individuals and the public


Introduction cont d

Introduction, cont’d

  • Yesterday Vs Today – African Corrections

  • Yesterday, offenders were managed without incarceration

  • Prisons-like places were mainly for holding purposes

  • They were for enhancing social harmony

  • It was compensation/ conciliation rather than punishment

  • Focus was on both offender and victims

  • Holding ‘imprisonment’ was the alternative to non custodial

  • **Today, focus is mainly on the offender

  • The non custodial are the alternatives**


Africans vs europeans

Africans Vs Europeans

  • Why the practice of incarceration for the 2 groups?

  • For colonised/Africans, it was a holding facility for compensation; while wrongdoing was rectified to get restitution rather than punishment

  • For colonialists/Europeans, it was to control and subdue potential rebellious natives; not for rehabilitation but for economic, political, religious and social subjugation, and means to justify cheap labour.


Phases of correctional

Phases of Correctional

  • Decarceration: no prisons, correcting within community

  • Incarceration: Prisons were a holding, restraining facility-knife Logic

  • Prisons became a punishment facility-Knife Logic

  • Prisons are now perceived as correctional facility-Needle Logic

    *** All to make communities safer***


Elements of major styles of social control a v 1990 20

Elements of Major Styles of Social Control (A.V:1990:20)


Vision and mission of corrections

Vision and Mission of Corrections

  • * Vision

  • A correctional service for achieving a crime free Society

  • A Correctional Service of excellence in Africa & beyond

  • As the best provider of custodial and correctional practices

  • As the strongest agent of community protection

  • As the enabler of humane and secure society thru crime prevention

  • **As the nucleus of professional corrections in Africa and a front runner in the world. **


Mission

Mission

  • To promote human rights of prisons, and the public through provision of safe and humane custody

  • To contain offenders in human and safe conditions in order to facilitate responsible administration of justice

  • To promote criminal justice institutions’ reforms for a secure society


Mission cont d

Mission, cont’d

  • To enable community safety and security through mitigation of the role of offenders

  • To effectively and efficiently provide and maintain a humane custodial and correctional services to inmates.

  • **To pave way for best correctional practice in Africa and beyond.**


Orientations of the service s management

Orientations of the Service’s Management

  • Current orientation

    The Reactive Orientation

    Most international instruments only address the two below:

  • Concentration on the inmates:

    Numbers, Rights, Feeding, Welfare

  • Concentration on the infrastructure

    • Facilities, building, amenities

    • Early releases: Parole, probation , pardon, etc

      ####This is reactive#####


Expected orientation the proactive as a multi actor orientation

Expected Orientation: TheProactive as a multi-actor orientation

  • Concentration on the staff also

    • Welfare

    • Motivation

    • Participation

    • Image boosting

  • Attitudinal change-staff, inmates, public


Correcting outside the facility

Correcting outside the facility

  • Extension of the concept of Community Corrections to include Community mobilization as a multi-actor orientation approach: Judiciary, Parliament, Executive

    -Concentration on how to reduce prison congestion through preemptive prevention

    -Using the Not There Alternatives (NTA)


Correcting outside cont d

Correcting outside, cont’d

  • ** Some NTAs: **

  • Encouraging diversionary measures

  • Encouraging the African ‘restorative justice’ system

  • Encouraging out of court settlement

  • Encouraging community service

  • Be more open to public


Sensitization of magistrates and communities on

Sensitization of Magistrates and communities on

Community service sentencing option;

fines, acquittals, bails, parole and probation

Creation of mini courts in prisons

Allow inmates engage in political and civic activities


Crime prevention a proactivity

Crime Prevention: A Proactivity

  • Working closely with agencies of crime prevention e.g UNAFRI, UNODC etc

  • Working hard in the community to prevent re-offending/recidivism

  • Constructive engagement of the parliament for review of laws

  • * Borrow Maicibi’s generic formula for fighting crime**


Trends and phases of corrections in africa

Correctional Refinery

Crime Prevention Steam

NTA

Diversions

ADR

RJS

Out of court

settlement

Community Service

  • Acquittals

    Fines

    Bails

    Parole and probation

Courts (Judiciary)

Prisons


Maicibi generic formula for fighting crime

Maicibi generic formula for fighting Crime

B < C

Where:

B => Benefits

Mb - Monetary & economic benefits to the criminal

Pb – Psychological & physiological benefits to the criminal

Sb- Sociological benefits to the criminal

Ec- Ease & level of success in committing the crime

C => Costs

Mt –Monetary & time to commit the crime

Fa – Fear & probability of being apprehended & arrested

Pc – Probability of conviction & its harshness

Lo – Lost opportunities & stigmatization

Key: B Vs C

B > C : Mb+Pb+Sb+ Ec > Mt+Fa+Pc+Lo means that benefits outweigh the costs.

B<C : Mb+Pb+Sb+Ec < Mt+Fa+Pc+Lo means that costs outweigh the benefits

B>Chas a slim chance of deterring crave to commit crime

B<Chas a high chance of deterring crave to commit crime

**Target and strategy should be to increase the Cs and decrease the Bs.


Prisons facility tree

Prisons Facility Tree

Inability for proper containment

Corruption

Diseases

Army of remand inmates

Jail violence/riots

Inadequate programming

Poor service delivery

Overcrowding

Court decisional delays

Recognition and Funding

Corruption

The burden of prove

Neglect of restorative justice

Closed prisons’ system

Poor access to legal Aid

Poverty

NTA


Conclusion

CONCLUSION

  • Thank you for being a wonderful audience

  • MaicibiAlhas(Ph D.)

  • UNAFRI


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