Marriage and Family Formation Among Urban In-Migrants in Antwerp and Stockholm A Longitudinal Approach to Social Integration, 1846-1926. Paul Puschmann 1 , Per- Olof Grönberg ² , Reto Schumacher ³ & Koen Matthijs ⁴
Paul Puschmann1, Per-OlofGrönberg², RetoSchumacher³& KoenMatthijs⁴
¹PhD. Fellow at Research Foundation Flanders (FWO); FaPoS, KU Leuven; Belgium.
²Centre for Population Studies, Umeå University; Sweden.
³NCCR Lives and Institute for Demographic and Life Course Studies, University of Geneva; Switzerland.
FaPoS, KU Leuven; Belgium.
To be Presented at the Fourth Urban Demography Network Meeting,
Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research (MPIDR)
Rostock , Germany; 2-May 2012
Based on: Based on:
Population registers The ‘Roteman’ registration system
Vital registration of births, marriages and deaths
33,583 life-courses Information on all inhabitants
Intra- and intergeneration comparisons Intra- and intergeneration comparisons
Contains information on: Contains information on:
Socio-economic and demographic characteristics Socio-economic and demographic characteristics
Household composition Household composition
Kin inside and outside the household Kin inside the household
Allows to follow moves in the area Allows to follow moves in the area
Disrtete-time event history analysis
Failure events: first marriage; first birth
Censoring: death, out migration, end of registration
life table estimator and plotted survival curves
Discrete time logit models
Time toMarriage Time to First Birth
adult years since arrivaladult years since arrival
adult years since arrival adult years since arrival
Higher incidences of marriage and reproduction among migrants in Antwerp. Was Antwerp more open to newcomers?
Clear connection between age at arrival and Integration: The younger someone arrived the better the chances were for marriage and family formation
Industrialization did not increase access to marriage and reproduction; Industrialization did not facilitate integration. In Antwerp the chances of getting married grew over time in the absence of large-scale industrialization. Notwithstanding, large scale industrialization the chances of marrying among Stockholm’s migrants decreased over time.
No big gender differences: Only better chances for males to get married in Stockholm
In Antwerp and Stockholm the likelihood of getting married was smaller among international migrants (except Russians in Stockholm). International migrants had more trouble in getting integrated. Were they less attractive?
No significant difference in access to reproduction in Antwerp according to the migrants’ region of origin. In the case of Stockholm, international migrants did have a much higher probability of experiencing the birth of a first child.
In the case of Antwerp, no clear relationship between social class and marriage and start of reproduction. In the case of Stockholm: Middle class and upper class migrants had higher chances of getting married, but a lower chances of experiencing a first birth
The timing and incidence of the first marriage might be a better indicator of integration than the onset of reproduction in the period we studied: Decreased chances of experiencing a first birth might say more about birth control practices than about access to reproduction, especially in the case of Stockholm.
Correlation between bad registration of in and out-migration on the one hand and access to marriage and reproduction on the other hand: Statistical artifact or historical reality?