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70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network, Enhanced Chapter 5: Planning, Configuring, And Troubleshooting DHCP. Objectives. Understand the DHCP lease and renewal process Plan DHCP for small or large networks Install DHCP Authorize a DHCP server

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70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network, EnhancedChapter 5: Planning, Configuring, And Troubleshooting DHCP

objectives
Objectives
  • Understand the DHCP lease and renewal process
  • Plan DHCP for small or large networks
  • Install DHCP
  • Authorize a DHCP server
  • Configure a DHCP server with scopes, superscopes, and more
  • Manage and monitor a DHCP server
  • Troubleshoot DHCP

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

the dhcp process
The DHCP Process
  • On a network DHCP delivers IP addressing information automatically:
    • To client computers
    • Servers and other devices such as printers
  • Using DHCP reduces the amount of time spent configuring individual computers on the network

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

leasing an ip address
Leasing an IP Address
  • A client computer that is configured to use DHCP must obtain a lease for an IP address
  • The process to lease an address is composed of four packets:
    • DHCPDISCOVER
    • DHCPOFFER
    • DHCPREQUEST
    • DHCPACK

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

leasing an ip address continued
Leasing an IP Address (continued)

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

renewing an ip address
Renewing An IP Address
  • An IP address is permanent or timed
  • A permanent address is never reused for another client
  • A timed lease allows clients to use an IP address for a specified period of time
  • A client can initiate the release of an IP address before the lease time has expired by using the command ipconfig/release

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

renewing an ip address continued
Renewing An IP Address (continued)

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

planning dhcp
Planning DHCP
  • When planning how to implement DHCP, you must first consider whether it is a small or large network
  • A small network with a single subnet:
    • Uses only hubs and switches (no router)
    • Uses a single DHCP server to service all clients without any special configuration

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

when you have a large network
When You Have a Large Network
  • Large networks with more than one subnet use routers to move packets between the subnets
  • DHCP relays or multiple DHCP servers must be configured
  • Having several DHCP servers makes management very complex because each server is managed separately

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

when you have a large network continued
When You Have a Large Network (continued)

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

dhcp relay
DHCP Relay
  • A DHCP relay allows DHCP communication across routers
  • Using DHCP relays can drastically simplify the implementation of DHCP because it reduces or eliminates the need for multiple DHCP servers
  • DHCP relay receives broadcast DHCP packets from clients and forwards them as unicast packets to a DHCP server
  • DHCP relay must be configured with the IP address of the DHCP server to deliver the unicast packets

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

dhcp relay continued
DHCP Relay (continued)

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

fault tolerance
Fault Tolerance
  • A fault-tolerant DHCP system can be designed using multiple DHCP servers, if no two servers hand out the same range of addresses at the same time
  • When creating a fault-tolerant DHCP infrastructure, you can implement:
    • A hot spare DHCP server
    • Multiple DHCP servers
    • Clustering

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

hot spare dhcp server
Hot Spare DHCP Server
  • A hot spare is a spare server preconfigured and ready to use
  • The main advantage is simplicity
  • Disadvantages are:
    • IP address conflicts
    • Synchronizing information between two servers
    • Lag time between recognizing that the initial DHCP server is down and getting the hot spare DHCP server up and running

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

multiple dhcp servers
Multiple DHCP Servers
  • Multiple DHCP servers can service the same subnet as long as they don’t lease the same range of IP addresses
  • Multiple DHCP servers are effective when DHCP relay is used
  • If two DHCP servers are configured on a single subnet, they need to have IP address ranges of equal size
  • If a DHCP relay is used between two DHCP servers, the address range needs to be split as follows:
    • 75% to 80% of the addresses on the local DHCP server
    • 20% to 25% of the addresses on the remote DHCP server

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

clustering
Clustering
  • When clustering is used for DHCP, multiple servers on the same subnet have DHCP installed, but it is active on only one server at a time
  • When DHCP fails on one server, it is automatically started on the next server
  • Servers configured in a cluster can share disk space on an external storage system; this allows them to share configuration information for services
  • Main disadvantage of clustering is the complexity involved in setting it up

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

installing dhcp
Installing DHCP
  • DHCP is a standard service that is included with Windows Server 2003
  • Not installed as part of the installation
  • Must be added later using Add or Remove Programs

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

activity 5 1 installing dhcp
Activity 5-1: Installing DHCP
  • The purpose of this activity is to install DHCP on Windows Server 2003

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

dhcp server authorization
DHCP Server Authorization
  • Control over DHCP is important: an unauthorized DHCP server can hand out incorrect IP addressing information to hundreds of client computers quickly
  • To exercise control over DHCP, Windows Server 2003 must be authorized to start the DHCP Service
  • Authorization of a DHCP server takes place in Active Directory with the DHCP Management snap-in

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

activity 5 2 starting an unauthorized dhcp server
Activity 5-2: Starting an Unauthorized DHCP Server
  • The purpose of this activity is to view the results of starting an unauthorized DHCP server

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

activity 5 3 authorizing a dhcp server
Activity 5-3: Authorizing a DHCP Server
  • The purpose of this activity is to authorize a DHCP server in Active Directory

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

configuring dhcp
Configuring DHCP
  • Configuration of DHCP is normally done with the DHCP Management snap-in
  • The DHCP elements that can be configured include:
    • Scopes
    • Superscopes
    • Multicast scopes
    • Reservations
    • Additional options
    • Vendor and User classes

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

scopes
Scopes
  • Use a scope to define a range of IP addresses for the DHCP server to hand out to client computers
  • Each scope is configured with:
    • Name
    • Starting IP address
    • Ending IP address
    • Subnet mask
    • Lease duration
    • Description
  • Can also configure exclusions for the scope

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

activity 5 4 creating a scope
Activity 5-4: Creating a Scope
  • The purpose of this activity is to create a scope to distribute IP addresses to client computers

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

activity 5 5 activating and testing a scope
Activity 5-5: Activating and Testing a Scope
  • The purpose of this activity is to activate a DHCP scope, and then test it with a partner

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

superscopes
Superscopes
  • A superscope combines multiple scopes into a single logical scope
  • Can do this when a single physical part of the network has two subnets on it

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

superscopes continued
Superscopes (continued)

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

activity 5 6 configuring a superscope
Activity 5-6: Configuring a Superscope
  • The purpose of this activity is to combine two scopes into a single logical unit using a superscope

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

activity 5 7 deleting a superscope
Activity 5-7: Deleting a Superscope
  • The purpose of this activity is to delete a superscope and one of the scopes inside it

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

multicast scopes
Multicast Scopes
  • A multicast scope delivers multicast addresses to applications that require it
  • When you create a multicast scope, you configure:
    • Start and end IP addresses
    • TTL (Time to Live)
    • Exclusions
    • A lease duration
    • Activation

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

activity 5 8 creating a multicast scope
Activity 5-8: Creating a Multicast Scope
  • The purpose of this activity is to create a multicast scope to deliver multicast addresses to applications

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

reservations
Reservations
  • Use a reservation to hand out a specific IP address to a particular client computer or device on the network
  • Reservations are beneficial with firewalls
  • Reservations are created based on the MAC address of the network card on the client workstation

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

activity 5 9 creating and testing a reservation
Activity 5-9: Creating and Testing a Reservation
  • The purpose of this activity is to create a DHCP reservation and test it with a client

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

additional options
Additional Options
  • DHCP can hand out a variety of other IP configuration options such as:
    • Default gateway
    • DNS server
    • WINS server and many more
  • These options can be configured for the entire server, a scope, or a single reservation

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

activity 5 10 setting server options
Activity 5-10: Setting Server Options
  • The purpose of this activity is to set the DNS server option for a DHCP server

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

activity 5 11 setting scope options
Activity 5-11: Setting Scope Options
  • The purpose of this activity is to set the default gateway in the scope options

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

vendor and user classes
Vendor and User Classes
  • Can use Vendor and User classes to differentiate between clients within a scope
  • Vendor classes are client categories based on the operating system being used
  • User classes are client categories defined based on how a client is connected to the network or by the network administrator

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

vendor and user classes continued
Vendor and User Classes (continued)
  • The DHCP server included with Windows Server 2003 has three predefined User classes :
    • Default User Class
    • Default Routing and Remote Access Class
    • Default BOOTP Class

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

managing and monitoring dhcp
Managing and Monitoring DHCP
  • To manage and monitor your DHCP server you can perform the following tasks:
    • Backing up and restoring DHCP databases
    • Reconciling scopes
    • Viewing statistics
    • Enabling DHCP audit logging
    • Enabling conflict detection
    • Modifying file paths Changing bindings
    • Viewing DHCP events in Event Viewer
    • Viewing DHCP statistics in the Performance snap-in

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

backing up and restoring dhcp databases
Backing Up and Restoring DHCP Databases
  • The DHCP Service has the following files:
    • The database holding the addressing information that has been assigned to client computers
    • Temporary database files only present during maintenance operations
    • Transaction logs of changes to the DHCP database
    • Checkpoint file that keeps track of which entries in the log files have been applied to the database

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

reconciling scopes
Reconciling Scopes
  • The DHCP database holds a summary version and a detailed version of the IP address lease information for a server
  • If there is a discrepancy between the two versions of information, you must reconcile the scope to synchronize the information

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

viewing statistics
Viewing Statistics
  • The Windows Server 2003 DHCP Service automatically tracks statistics that you can view
  • To view these statistics, right-click the server or scope, and click Display Statistics

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

enabling dhcp audit logging
Enabling DHCP Audit Logging
  • DHCP audit logs keep detailed information about DHCP server activity
  • Logging is enabled by default and keeps up to seven audit logs
  • These logs help troubleshoot why a DHCP server is not functioning as expected

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

enabling conflict detection
Enabling Conflict Detection
  • Conflict detection prevents a DHCP server from creating IP address conflicts
  • When conflict detection is enabled, a DHCP server pings an IP address before it is leased to a client computer
    • This ensures that even if another device is statically configured with that IP address, it is not leased

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

modifying file paths
Modifying File Paths
  • Can control the location of the audit log file, the DHCP database, and the automatic backup directory
  • Leave these files in their default locations
  • To modify the paths to where these files are stored, access the properties of the DHCP server in the DHCP Management snap-in

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

changing bindings
Changing Bindings
  • If a DHCP server has multiple network cards, you can choose which network cards the DHCP Service is bound
  • DHCP server hands out IP addresses only through a network card to which the DHCP Service is bound
  • Bindings are controlled in the Advanced tab of the server Properties in the DHCP Management snap-in

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

viewing dhcp events in event viewer
Viewing DHCP Events in Event Viewer
  • In addition to audit logging, some summary information generated by the DHCP Service is placed in the system event log
  • Can view these events using Event Viewer

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

activity 5 12 viewing dhcp events in event viewer
Activity 5-12: Viewing DHCP Events in Event Viewer
  • The purpose of this activity is to see the events placed into the system log by the DHCP Service

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

activity 5 13 removing dhcp
Activity 5-13: Removing DHCP
  • The purpose of this activity is to remove the DHCP Server service from your server

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

viewing dhcp statistics in the performance snap in
Viewing DHCP Statistics in the Performance Snap-in
  • When DHCP is installed on Windows Server 2003, new objects and counters are added to the Performance snap-in
  • Can monitor these counters to track the performance of DHCP over time
  • If you establish an initial benchmark of DHCP performance under average conditions, then you can tell if something is functioning abnormally later

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

dhcp troubleshooting
DHCP Troubleshooting
  • Some problems that you may encounter include:
    • All computers are unable to lease addresses
    • A single computer is unable to lease an address
    • Some computers have incorrect address information
    • A single computer has incorrect address information
    • A rogue DHCP server is leasing addresses
    • IP address conflicts are created when the DHCP server hands out addresses already used by hosts with static IP addresses
    • A client is using an APIPA address

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

summary
Summary
  • DHCP is used to assign IP address information dynamically to clients on a network
  • The commands ipconfig /release and ipconfig /renew are used to release and renew DHCP leases
  • A scope defines a range of IP addresses that are leased to clients
  • A superscope combines two scopes into a single logical unit to service network segments with two subnets

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

summary summary
Summary (summary)
  • An exclusion in a scope stops a DHCP server from handing out specific addresses or a range of addresses within a scope
  • A reservation allows you to give a specific workstation a defined IP address by tying the DHCP lease to the MAC address of the client
  • You can use vendor and User classes to configure some client computers with different options depending on the class to which they belong

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

summary continued
Summary (continued)
  • Several task can be performed to effectively manage and monitor DHCP
  • Although DHCP is reliable some problems include computers not able to obtain IP addresses, computers obtaining duplicate IP addresses, and computers obtaining incorrect IP addresses

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network

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