Chapter 7
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Chapter 7. Acids & Bases. About Acids…. Sour taste Neutralize base Dissolves active metal Litmus indicator = red Definitions Arrhenius: form H + in water Bronsted-Lowry: donates a proton. About Bases…. Bitter taste Neutralize acid Feels slippery or “soapy” Litmus indicator = blue

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Chapter 7

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Chapter 7

Chapter 7

Acids & Bases


About acids

About Acids…

  • Sour taste

  • Neutralize base

  • Dissolves active metal

  • Litmus indicator = red

  • Definitions

    • Arrhenius: form H+ in water

    • Bronsted-Lowry: donates a proton


About bases

About Bases…

  • Bitter taste

  • Neutralize acid

  • Feels slippery or “soapy”

  • Litmus indicator = blue

  • Definitions

    • Arrhenius: form OH- in water

    • Bronsted-Lowry: accepts a proton


Strong acids bases

Strong Acids & Bases

  • Come apart completely in water

    • Examples: Hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid


Weak acids bases

Weak Acids & Bases

  • Come apart only partially in water

    • Examples: acetic acid, carbonic acid, hydrocyanic acid


Acids and bases

Acids and Bases


Acid base neutralization titration

Acid/Base Neutralization (Titration)

  • Strong acid + strong base

    HCl + NaOH  H2O + NaCl

    NaCl

    H+ Cl- Na+ OH-

    H2O


Ph calculations

pH Calculations

pH = – log [H+]

[H+] = 10-pH

  • What is the pH of a solution that has a hydrogen ion concentration of 8.5 x 10-4M?

  • If a solution has a pH of 9.4, what is the hydrogen ion concentration?


Acids you

Acids & You

  • Acid rain

Source: http://www.newint.org/issue114/rain.htm


Acids you1

Acids & You

  • Digestion

~ 2 liters of stomach acid per day!

Source: http://www.solvaypharma.ca/en/areas/gastro2.asp


Acids you2

Acids & You

  • In your car

Source: http://newark.rutgers.edu/~huskey/images/lead-acid-battery.gif


Bases you

Bases & You

  • Cleaning

    • Clarifying shampoos

      • Higher pH than the hair itself makes the hair shaft swell and allows cleaning agents to penetrate more deeply

    • Detergents

      • Break up oil and grease

    • Drain cleaner

      • Very high pH to eat through acidic hair & skin debris


Bases you1

Bases & You

  • Antacids

    • Acid-base neutralization

    • Calcium carbonate + stomach acid


Bases you2

Bases & You

  • Baking

    • Baking soda & baking powder react with acid in the batter to form bubbles of CO2

Source: http://www.joyofbaking.com/bakingsoda.html


Practice

Practice

Nitric acid (HNO3) reacts with magnesium hydroxide in an acid-base neutralization reaction.

Write the balanced equation.

Name both products in the reaction.

2HNO3 + Mg(OH)2 2H2O + Mg(NO3)2

Water and magnesium nitrate


Practice1

Practice

What is the molarity?

50.0g of potassium bromate dissolved in enough water to make 1.5L of solution (2 decimal places)

How many grams to weigh out?

Make 1.8L of a 0.75M solution of calcium perchlorate (2 decimal places)

0.2M

322.52g


Practice2

Practice

What is the percent concentration? (1 decimal place)

45mL of ethanol dissolved in 1L of water

85g of NaCl dissolved in 315g of water

4.5% v/v

21.3% m/m


Practice3

Practice

How many times more acidic is lemon juice (pH 1.5) than blood (pH 7.5)?

Something that is 10,000 times more basic than tomatoes (pH 4.2) would have a pH of what?

1,000,000 or 106 times more acidic

pH of 8.2


Practice4

Practice

What is the pH? (2 decimal places)

[H+] = 1.87 x 10-4 M

What is the hydrogen ion concentration?

pH = 11.45

3.73

3.55 x 10-12 M


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