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Satellite Basics MAC Smog Blog Training CATHALAC, Panama, Sept 11-12, 2008. Jill Engel-Cox & Erica Zell Battelle Memorial Institute engelcoxj@battelle.org, 703-875-2144 zelle@battelle.org, 703-236-1420. U.S. Ambient Air Monitoring. National Ambient Air Quality Standards

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Satellite Basics MAC Smog Blog Training CATHALAC, Panama, Sept 11-12, 2008

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Satellite BasicsMAC Smog Blog TrainingCATHALAC, Panama, Sept 11-12, 2008

Jill Engel-Cox & Erica Zell

Battelle Memorial Institute

engelcoxj@battelle.org, 703-875-2144

zelle@battelle.org, 703-236-1420


U.S. Ambient Air Monitoring

  • National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    • Carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur oxides, particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), and ozone

  • Typical Real-time Monitors

    • Hourly Ozone (ppb)

    • Hourly PM2.5 (g / m3)

  • Converted to health-based air quality index (AQI)

  • Available on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s AIRNow website (http://www.airnow.gov)


Key NASA air quality satellite sensors

Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)


How a Polar Orbiting Satellite orbits…


How a polar orbiting satellite orbits…


Satellite Data Available for Air Quality

  • Most useful for particulate matter (PM)

  • Type of information relevant to PM:

    • True Color (Red, Green, Blue - RGB) - looks like a photograph but is data, shows haze, dust, & smoke

    • Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) - Non-dimensional measure of total column (satellite-ground) extinction

  • Limited but improving information on ground-level ozone, SO2, CO, vertical distribution of PM

  • All data is “free”, available globally


MODIS True Color Image6 July 2002

Engel-Cox, J. et.al. 2004. Atmospheric Environment.


Transport Case Study Illustration MODISRGB L1B Image25 June 2002

Haze

Cloud

Sunglint

Data provided by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Image processed by Battelle using MODIS HDF Look.


MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth25 June 2002

Data provided by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Image processed by Battelle using MODIS HDF Look.


Relation to Ground-based Data

Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) vs. PM2.5 (Ground)


120

105

90

75

60

45

30

15

0

Quantitative Analysis: PM2.5 Concentrations vs. MODIS AOD

STN-M Site Locations

Eastern U.S., April-September 2002

PM2.5(μg/m3)= 23 AOD + 7

N=14,000

PM2.5 (μg/m3)

IMPROVE Site Locations

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

Aerosol Optical Depth (unitless)

Engel-Cox, J. et.al. 2004. Atmospheric Environment.


Engel-Cox, J. et.al. 2004. Atmospheric Environment.


Initial Correlations by SeasonDaily Fine Mass

Winter

Summer

Spring

Fall


Old Town TEOM

MODIS AOD

Baltimore, MDSummer 2004

July 21

Mixed down smoke

July 9

High altitude smoke

Aug 24

Transported haze

Aug 10

Normal haze

PM2.5 (g/m3)

MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth


Sources


Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD)IDEA:http://idea.ssec.wisc.edu/


MesoAmerica Aerosol Optical Depth from MODISSundar A. ChristopherThe University of Alabama in Huntsville

  • Weekly Composites of MODIS Aerosol Terra Optical Depth for 2007

  • Weekly Composites from one satellite provides increases spatial coverage

  • Further work will use data fusion approaches to combine both Terra and Aqua to fill in the gaps.


Jan 1-7


Jan 8-14


Jan 15-21


Jan 22-28


Jan 29-Feb4


Feb 4-11


Feb12-18


Feb19-Feb24


Feb26-Mar4


Mar5-11


Mar12-Mar18


Mar19-25


Mar26-Apr1


Apr2-Apr8


Apr9-15


Apr16-Apr22


Apr23-Apr29


Apr30-May6


May7-May13


May14-May20


May21-May27


May28-Jun3


Jun4-10


Jun11-17


Jun18-Jun24


Questions?


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