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Biology 201 Dr. Edwin DeMont. Evolution of Man. Linked to Ardi papers. St. Francis Xavier University. Primates. Two suborders. (1) Strepsirhini - Lemurs. (2) Haplorhini. Six Families…. 6. Hominidae. Hominini. -Gorillas, chimpanzees, orangutan and humans.

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Biology 201 Dr. Edwin DeMont

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Biology 201 dr edwin demont

Biology 201Dr. Edwin DeMont

Evolution of Man

Linked to Ardi papers.

St. Francis Xavier University


Biology 201 dr edwin demont

Primates

Two suborders

(1) Strepsirhini

- Lemurs

(2) Haplorhini

Six Families….

6. Hominidae

Hominini

-Gorillas, chimpanzees, orangutan and humans

St. Francis Xavier University


Biology 201 dr edwin demont

Evolution of Hominins

5-7 million years ago global temperature dropped.

Tropical forests in Africa broken in mosaic of forests and vast savannah.

African apes started to graze for food.

Upright posture gave better view of predators and free hands for food gathering and bipedal locomotion evolved.

St. Francis Xavier University


Biology 201 dr edwin demont

Bipedal locomotion

Skeletal adaptations for bipedal locomotion

-Spinous processes reduced.

- Vertebral column curved.

- Vertebrae larger at base.

- Femur angled – puts feet under centre of mass.

St. Francis Xavier University


Biology 201 dr edwin demont

Evolution of Hominins

A. Gibbons Science 326, 36-40 (2009)

Introductory Video

Published by AAAS

St. Francis Xavier University


Biology 201 dr edwin demont

Ardipithecus ramidus

4.4 million year old skeleton from Ethiopia

“Facultative” biped

Flexible hand

Opposable toe

Published by AAAS

St. Francis Xavier University


Biology 201 dr edwin demont

Evolution of Hominins

Video: The Analysis of Ardipithecus ramidus--One of the Earliest Known Hominids

Published by AAAS

St. Francis Xavier University


Biology 201 dr edwin demont

Evolution of Hominins

Paleobiological Implications of the Dentition

Used as a slicing weapon in social conflicts

Social behavioural changes long before tools were used.

Honing occurs in canine

Published by AAAS

Humans

Ardi

Chimp

St. Francis Xavier University


Biology 201 dr edwin demont

Evolution of Hominins

Paleobiological Implications of the Dentition

Thick enamel – food abrasive from terrestrial feeding

Thin enamel – ripe fruits

Red :Thick Enamel

Blue: Thin Enamel

Published by AAAS

Humans

Ardi

Chimp

St. Francis Xavier University


Biology 201 dr edwin demont

Evolution of Hominins

The Pelvis and Femur: The Emergence of Upright Walking

Ilia different shape in chimps – won’t allow repositioning of hips during leg lift-off

Ischial surfaces angled showing hamstrings undergone transformation

Man

Chimpanzee

Ardi

Lucy

Published by AAAS

St. Francis Xavier University


Biology 201 dr edwin demont

Evolution of Hominins

A. Gibbons Science 326, 36-40 (2009)

Published by AAAS

St. Francis Xavier University


Biology 201 dr edwin demont

Evolution of Hominins

Image source

There is general acceptance of five Homo species. Fossils of Homohabilis (2.4-1.5 million years ago) demonstrate the presence of Broca's area (an area of the brain devoted to speech).

St. Francis Xavier University


Biology 201 dr edwin demont

Evolution of Hominins

Image source

Homoerectus (1.8-300,000 years ago) was the first member of the genus to migrate from Africa to Europe, China, and Indonesia. H. erectus used more sophisticated tools and was the first to utilize fire.

St. Francis Xavier University


Biology 201 dr edwin demont

Evolution of Hominins

Image source

H. heidlebergeinsis appeared 500,000 years ago.

St. Francis Xavier University


Biology 201 dr edwin demont

Evolution of Hominins

Image source

H. neanderthalensis (230,000-30,000 years ago). Neanderthal man was specialized for life in the cold climate of Europe and the Middle East. Neanderthals were the first known Homo species to bury their dead.

St. Francis Xavier University


Biology 201 dr edwin demont

Evolution of Hominins

H. sapiens arose in Africa 195,000 years ago. H. sapiens produced fine works of art. Fully modern humans were present about 30,000 years ago.

St. Francis Xavier University


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