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William Berkeley. The rise of class consciousness. Major Events under Berkeley. 1641Berkeley appointed Governor 1642Signs treaty with Maryland 1644Opechanough’s last stand, returns to England, fights for King 1648Society of Friends (Quakers) founded 1649Charles I beheaded

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William Berkeley

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William berkeley

William Berkeley

The rise of class consciousness


Major events under berkeley

Major Events under Berkeley

  • 1641Berkeley appointed Governor

  • 1642Signs treaty with Maryland

  • 1644Opechanough’s last stand, returns to England, fights for King

  • 1648Society of Friends (Quakers) founded

  • 1649Charles I beheaded

  • 1652Berkeley removed from power

  • 1660Berkeley returns to power

  • 1660sDutch attacks on Virginia


Virginia in 1641

Virginia in 1641

  • Population growth

    • 1640 - 8,000

    • 1660 - 30,000

    • fueled by immigration

      • ~1000 per year

    • servants ~ 50% pop

  • English institutions

    • high vs. low status

    • profit motive supports those who exploit

    • servitude as normal

    • voting.


Virginia in 16411

Virginia in 1641

  • Three tiers of society

    • indentured servants

      • few personal possessions

    • middle class

      • land + servants in VA

      • maintain commercial connections with England

      • local leaders

    • planter aristocracy

      • rule b/c outdistance others

      • establish dynasties.


Rising tensions in england

Rising tensions in England

  • Political instability

  • Religious conflict

    • Puritans ideology

    • separatism.

The Puritan “great migration” 1630-42


Civil war in england

Civil War in England

  • Civil war in England

    • 1642 fighting begins

    • Parliament vs. King.

Origins of the “great migration”


The revolutions

The Revolutions

  • 1630’s King oppresses Puritans (reason for so many immigrants to the New World)

  • various types of opponents of the King.

Puritan Woman c. 1640


Anglo indian war

Anglo-Indian War

  • 1644 - Final gasp of Opechanough

    • surprise assault kills 500 (of 8,000)

    • Berkeley begins furious counter-assault

    • Berkeley to England for military supplies.

British depiction of the attack


Civil war in england1

Civil War in England

  • Berkeley fights for King Charles I

    • 1645 returns to Virginia

    • brings military stores for continued assault

    • problems with Virginia troops.

Cup commemorating King Charles hiding in a tree to escape Roundhead forces


Anglo indian war1

Anglo-Indian War

  • 1645 - capture of Opechanough

    • his death

  • surrender and move to reservations

    • origins of English method of dealing with Indians

      • separation to prevent conflict

    • opens Virginia to European expansion.

Peace Treaty with Necotowance


Civil war in england2

Civil War in England

  • King Charles I captured 1647

    • Parliament passes law regarding trade with the Dutch

    • Berkeley’s response

  • traded to Parliament.

Origins of the “great migration”


Beheading of charles i 1649

Beheading of Charles I - 1649


The commonwealth 1649 1660

The Commonwealth1649-1660

  • 1649 trial of Charles I

  • Cromwell 1599-1658

    • reaction in Virginia

    • Berkeley offers Charles II the opportunity to rule in exile from Virginia

  • 1651 army dispatched to “reduce the colony by peaceful means”

    • Berkeley’s defiant reaction to arrival of army

    • Berkeley 12 March 1652 surrenders

      • favorable terms for self & colony.


Virginia s slave population

Virginia’s Slave Population

  • Africans in Virginia

    • 1650 no more than 500 present

    • “A society with slaves”

    • treated equally to other servants until 1660

    • Anthony Johnson & “Myne owne ground”.

Distribution of slaves through the western hemisphere


Immigrants to va

Immigrants to VA

  • Impact of arrivals on VA

    • indentured servants

    • continued death rate above 40% first year

    • religious orientation

    • Maryland.

Establishment of Maryland


Va economy 1640 70

VA Economy 1640-70

  • tobacco

    • used as means of exchange

    • price decrease

      • attempts to stabilize prices

      • 1640-50s Dutch trade stabilizes

    • sold on consignment

      • credit system

      • advantage to large planters

    • maintains ties to England

      • proves to England the value of Virginia trade.


Va economy 1640 701

VA Economy 1640-70

  • Cattle

    • only permanent investment

    • land valueless

    • tobacco has one year value

    • no cash

  • Marriages

    • Berkeley’s two marriages

      • 1650 - Dame Berkeley

      • 1670 - Frances Culpeper Stephens.


Berkeley

Berkeley

But I thank God, there are no free schools nor printing, and I hope we shall not have these hundred years; for learning has brought disobedience, and heresy, and sects into the world, and libels against the best government. God keep us from both!

Sir William Berkeley

Governor, 1671


Berkeley1

Berkeley

  • Reinstalled as governor by General Assembly 1660

    • power sharing

    • elite rulership

    • dealing with Indians.

Indian “Passports”


Counties

Counties

  • Counties established

    • 1634 8 counties

    • 1636 +1

    • 1637 split #9

    • 1656 +6

    • 1668 +4

    • Total 20 under Berkeley.


Counties1

Counties

  • local county officials hold nearly absolute power

    • elite hold most offices

  • rising tensions in VA

  • lack of opportunity

    • for newcomers

    • for freed servants.


Courts

Courts

  • County court system

    • could punish for drunkenness

    • reinforced morals and order of society

    • slander cases

      • fine if charge unproven

  • Court officials frequently members of House of Burgesses

    • consolidation of power

  • Enforcing discipline on unruly servants.


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