Alexander Anton Attorney-at-Law German Dairy Association (MIV), Brussels - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Slide1 l.jpg
1 / 24

  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Trademarks, Geographical Indications and Generics in cheeses. Alexander Anton Attorney-at-Law German Dairy Association (MIV), Brussels Background. German Dairy Industry: 120 daries (coops and private companies) with 38.000 employees

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

Download Presentation

Alexander Anton Attorney-at-Law German Dairy Association (MIV), Brussels

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript

Slide1 l.jpg


Geographical Indications

and Generics in cheeses

Alexander Anton


German Dairy Association (MIV), Brussels

Background l.jpg


German Dairy Industry:

120 daries (coops and private companies)

with 38.000 employees

processing the milk of 112.000 dairy farms

Alexander Anton

Background3 l.jpg


Cheese production

Alexander Anton

Background4 l.jpg



share of cheese production

Alexander Anton

Slide5 l.jpg

Imagine a world where you have to call parmesan cheese „aged hard cheese“ or where Dijon mustard would have to be marketed as „brown spicy mustard.“

C. Manly Mopus • President/ CEO of Grocery Manufacturers of America

„Protection of geographical names is a key to promote quality products and to increase transparency...

Feta cheese should not be an exception. Marketing cheese as Feta when it is not produced strictly according to its product specifications is misleading to consumers.“

Franz Fischler • former EU Commissioner

„We have no difficulty with protecting legitimate local names for cheeses such as Roquefort or Gorgonzola. But at the same time we must also recognize that some names – such as Feta, Parmesan, Emmental and Cheddar – have long been recognized as generic products by consumers around the world. The right to continue to produce and market those cheeses must be equally protected.“

Craig Norgate • CEO of New Zealand‘s Fonterra Cooperative Group

Alexander Anton

International developments l.jpg

International developments

  • Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, 1883

  • Madrid Agreement for the Repression of False or Deceptive Indications of Source on Goods, 1891

  • Lisbon Agreement for the Protection of Appellations of Origin and their International Registration, 1958

  • Stresa Convention for the Use of Appellations of Origin and Denominations of Cheeses, 1951

  • WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), 1994

Alexander Anton

Stresa convention 1951 l.jpg

Stresa Convention 1951

  • Annex Aprotection of the origin

  • Annex Bprotection of characteristics

    = generic names

  • “denominations of cheeses in Annex B shall not be transferred to Annex A …”

Alexander Anton

Geographical indication terminology l.jpg

Geographical Indication (Terminology)

A geographical indication is an indication which identifies a good as originating in the territory of a Member, or a region or locality in that territory, where a given quality, reputation or other characteristic of the good is essentially attributable to its geographical origin.


Alexander Anton

Council regulation eec no 2081 92 l.jpg

Council Regulation (EEC)No. 2081/92

(Scope: limited to certain agricultural products for which a link between product or foodstuff characteristics and geographical origin exists)

Protected Designation of Origin (PDO)

Protected Geographical Indication (PGI)

Product must beproduced andprocessed andpreparedin geographical area

Product must beproduced orprocessed orpreparedin geographical area

Alexander Anton

Pdo pgi registration under reg eec no 2081 92 cheeses l.jpg

PDO/PGI registration under Reg. (EEC) No. 2081/92 (cheeses)

total 154


Alexander Anton

Pdo pgi share of cheese production l.jpg

PDO / PGIshare of cheese production

Alexander Anton

German gi cheeses l.jpg

German GI cheeses

  • Allgäuer Bergkäse

  • Allgäuer Emmentaler

  • Altenburger Ziegenkäse

  • OdenwälderFrühstückskäse

Alexander Anton

Generic cheeses l.jpg

Generic Cheeses

Emmental, Cheddar, Gouda, Edam, Camembert, Brie, Provolone, Mozzarella... Feta (C-465/02), Parmesan (C-132/05)

Alexander Anton

Slide14 l.jpg

①Parmesan 2008 ?

②Feta 2007 ?

③Olmützer 2010 ?

④ Münster 2019 ?

⑤ Emmental ?

⑥Edam/Gouda ?


Alexander Anton

Court cases european court of justice court of first instance l.jpg

Court Cases(European Court of Justice, Court of First Instance)

  • FetaC-289/96 et. al. (1999)

    C-465/02 & 466/02 et. al.

  • GorgonzolaC-87/97 (1999)

  • EmmentalC-448/98 (2000)

  • ParmesanT-197/96

    C-66/00 (2002)


  • Grana PadanoC-469/00 (2003)

  • GranaT-291/03

Alexander Anton

Regulation eec no 2081 92 l.jpg

Regulation (EEC) No. 2081/92

Generic names

  • Generic names may not be registered.

  • Generic name means the name of an agricultural product or foodstuff which, although it relates to the place or the region where this product or foodstuff was originally produced or marketed, has become the common name of an agricultural product or a foodstuff.

Alexander Anton

Slide17 l.jpg

Alexander Anton

Regulation eec no 2081 9218 l.jpg

Regulation (EEC) No. 2081/92

List of generic names

  • In Reg. 2081/92 the Commission is askedto draw up and publish a non-exhaustive, indicative list of generic names before the entry into force of this regulation(July 24, 1993).

  • Codex Alimentarius Standard: generic names

  • Stresa Convention of 1951

Alexander Anton

Slide19 l.jpg

Alexander Anton

Regulation eec no 2081 9220 l.jpg

Regulation (EEC) No. 2081/92

Statement by the Council and the Commission

„(We) stress that this Regulation is not intended to prevent the continued marketing of products legally sold within the Community on June 30, 1992, so long as they do not conflict with the criteria relating to traditional fair practice and actual likelihood for confusion.“

Alexander Anton

Slide21 l.jpg

Alexander Anton

Slide22 l.jpg

Alexander Anton

Trademark gi and generic l.jpg

Trademark, GI and Generic

Alexander Anton

Bilateral agreements ch emmental l.jpg

bilateral agreements CH / ...(Emmental)

Alexander Anton

  • Login