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1. El Presente Perfecto de Indicativo y Subjuntivo Comparacin de los dos.
2. Qu es el presente perfecto de indicativo? The present perfect is formed by combining a helping verb (have or has) with the past participle
3. Veamos, por ejemplo I have played the piano for years.
Martha has sung at weddings.
We have flown in a plane.
4. En ingls To form the present participle,we combine the helping verb have/has with a past participle (-ed/-en):
For example, I have been a lifeguard.
I is the subject
have is the helping verb
been is the past participle
5. En espaol We form the present participle by combining the present tense of the verb haber (i.e., the helping verb or el verbo auxiliar) with a past participle
Nosotros hemos bailado y.
We have danced and.
no hemos estudiado para el examen.
We havent studied for the test.
6. The present tense of haber
7. Remember How to form the past participle:
For ar verbs, take the stem of the verb and add ado
Example: comprar ? comprado
For er and ir verbs, take the stem of the verb and add ido
Example: tener ? tenido
vivir ? vivido
8. Para formar Here are the present perfect forms of estudiar:
9. Para formar As you can see, I have combined the present forms of haber (the helping verbs)
10. with the past participle of estudiar
11. Now you try
13. Lets try another Now see if you can form the present perfect forms of the verb tomar:
14. Is this what you got?
15. Now lets try an er verb See if you can come up with the present perfect forms for comer:
16. Is this what you came up with?
17. Lets try another onesee if you can come up with the present perfect tense of ir:
18. Is this what you came up with?
19. Many of you may have assumed that ir had an irregular past participle. After all, it does have an irregular present participle. But ir is actually regular in this tense. Here are some verbs that are irregular in the past participle.
20. Not exactly irregular but -er and ir verbs whose stems end in a vowel have past participles ending in do
caer ? cado creer ? credo
leer ? ledo or ? odo
rer ? redo traer ? trado
21. Irregulars The following verbs have irregular past participles ending in to:
abrir ? abierto cubrir ? cubierto
escribir ? escrito volver ? vuelto
morir ? muerto poner ? puesto
romper ? roto ver ? visto
descubrir ? descubierto
22. More irregulars These verbs have irregular past participles ending in cho:
decir ? dicho
hacer ? hecho
23. Vamos a practicar! See if you can form the correct present perfect using the subject and verb given.
Modelo: yo / decidir ? He decidido
1. ella / abrir
2. Marta y yo / tocar
3. Gonzalo / crecer
24. 4. T y tus amigos / rer
5. Mis padres / hacer
6. Tus abuelos / cubrir
7. Rogelio y Ramn / escribir
Object pronouns and no are always placed directly before the form of haber, e.g.:
The present perfect form of hay is always ha habido ( there has/have been) , e.g.:
Remember that acabar + de + infinitive (not the present perfect tense) is used to state that something has just occurred, e.g.:
26. The present perfect subjunctive (el perfecto subjuntivo) is formed with the present subjunctive of haber plus the past participle. It is used to express I have spoken (written, and so on) when the subjunctive is required.
Qu es el presente perfecto de subjuntivo?
27. Note in the model sentence at the right that the English equivalent of the present perfect subjunctive can be expressed as a simple or compound tense: did/have done; came/have come; built/have built.
28. The perfect subjunctive differs from the present subjunctive in that it conveys the meaning of an action which would, or might have taken place, i.e. a finished action
Compare a) with b):
a) Espero que lleguen a tiempo para coger el avin (I hope they arrive on time to catch the plane)
b) Espero que hayan llegado a tiempo para coger el avin (I hope they arrived on time so that they could catch the place)
29. Vamos a practicar con el pretrito perfecto!