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1. El Presente Perfecto de Indicativo y Subjuntivo Comparaci?n de los dos.
2. ?Qu? es el presente perfecto de indicativo? The present perfect is formed by combining a helping verb (?have? or ?has?) with the past participle
3. Veamos, por ejemplo? I have played the piano for years.
Martha has sung at weddings.
We have flown in a plane.
4. En ingl?s? To form the present participle,we combine the helping verb ?have/has? with a past participle (-ed/-en):
For example, ?I have been a lifeguard.?
?I? is the subject
?have? is the helping verb
?been? is the past participle
5. En espa?ol? We form the present participle by combining the present tense of the verb haber (i.e., the helping verb or el verbo auxiliar) with a past participle
Nosotros hemos bailado y?.
We have danced and?.
no hemos estudiado para el examen.
We haven?t studied for the test.
6. The present tense of haber
7. Remember? How to form the past participle:
For ?ar verbs, take the stem of the verb and add ?ado
Example: comprar ? comprado
For ?er and ?ir verbs, take the stem of the verb and add ?ido
Example: tener ? tenido
vivir ? vivido
8. Para formar? Here are the present perfect forms of estudiar:
9. Para formar? As you can see, I have combined the present forms of haber (the helping verbs)
10. ?with the past participle of estudiar
11. Now you try?
13. Let?s try another? Now see if you can form the present perfect forms of the verb tomar:
14. Is this what you got?
15. Now let?s try an ?er verb See if you can come up with the present perfect forms for comer:
16. Is this what you came up with?
17. Let?s try another one?see if you can come up with the present perfect tense of ir:
18. Is this what you came up with?
19. Many of you may have assumed that ir had an irregular past participle. After all, it does have an irregular present participle. But ir is actually regular in this tense. Here are some verbs that are irregular in the past participle.
20. Not exactly irregular but? -er and ?ir verbs whose stems end in a vowel have past participles ending in ??do
caer ? ca?do creer ? cre?do
leer ? le?do o?r ? o?do
re?r ? re?do traer ? tra?do
21. Irregulars The following verbs have irregular past participles ending in ?to:
abrir ? abierto cubrir ? cubierto
escribir ? escrito volver ? vuelto
morir ? muerto poner ? puesto
romper ? roto ver ? visto
descubrir ? descubierto
22. More irregulars These verbs have irregular past participles ending in ?cho:
decir ? dicho
hacer ? hecho
23. ?Vamos a practicar! See if you can form the correct present perfect using the subject and verb given.
Modelo: yo / decidir ? He decidido
1. ella / abrir
2. Marta y yo / tocar
3. Gonzalo / crecer
24. 4. T? y tus amigos / re?r
5. Mis padres / hacer
6. Tus abuelos / cubrir
7. Rogelio y Ram?n / escribir
Object pronouns and no are always placed directly before the form of haber, e.g.:
The present perfect form of hay is always ha habido ( there has/have been) , e.g.:
Remember that acabar + de + infinitive (not the present perfect tense) is used to state that something has just occurred, e.g.:
26. The present perfect subjunctive (el perfecto subjuntivo) is formed with the present subjunctive of haber plus the past participle. It is used to express I have spoken (written, and so on) when the subjunctive is required.
?Qu? es el presente perfecto de subjuntivo?
27. Note in the model sentence at the right that the English equivalent of the present perfect subjunctive can be expressed as a simple or compound tense: did/have done; came/have come; built/have built.
28. The perfect subjunctive differs from the present subjunctive in that it conveys the meaning of an action which would, or might have taken place, i.e. a finished action
Compare a) with b):
a) Espero que lleguen a tiempo para coger el avi?n (I hope they arrive on time to catch the plane)
b) Espero que hayan llegado a tiempo para coger el avi?n (I hope they arrived on time so that they could catch the place)
29. ?Vamos a practicar con el pret?rito perfecto!