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Chapter 3 Business Research Design ( Desain Penelitian Bisnis ). Definisi Desain Penelitian Jenis-jenis desain penelitian. Definisi Desain Penelitian.

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Definisi desain penelitian jenis jenis desain penelitian

Chapter 3

Business Research Design


  • Definisi Desain Penelitian

  • Jenis-jenis desain penelitian

Definisi desain penelitian


  • Kerangka (framework)/cetak biru (blueprint) yang berisikan rencana dan prosedur untuk mengarahkan penelitian (mengumpulkan, mengukur, dan analisa data) menjawab masalah penelitian (research questions).

Definisi desain penelitian jenis jenis desain penelitian

Clarifying the Research Question

Discover the Management Dilemma

Define the Research Questions

Refine the Research Questions

Exploration Exploration



Research Design Strategy

(type, purpose, time frame, scope, environment)

Data Collection




Data Analysis and Interpretation

Instrument Development

And Pilot Testing

Data Collection & Preparation

Research Reporting




Research design

Research Design



Research Design Strategy

(type, purpose, time frame, scope, environment)

Data Collection




Instrument Development

& Pilot Testing

Data Collection & Preparation

Types of research design

Types of Research Design

Research Design

Conclusive Research Design

Exploratory Research Design

Descriptive Research

Causal Research

Cross-Sectional Design

Longitudinal Design

Single Cross-Sectional Design

Multiple Cross-Sectional Design

Sumber: Malhotra, 2004; Zikmund, 2002

Menentukan desain penelitian

Menentukan Desain Penelitian

Apakah tujuan penelitian spesifik & data yg dibutuhkan sudah jelas?



Penelitian Eksploratori

Penelitian Konklusif

Analisis Data & Intepretasi Hasil


Perlu uji hubungan kausal ?

Perlu Penelitian Lanjutan?



Penelitian Deskriptif



Analisis Data & Intepretasi Hasil

Beri Rekomendasi

Exploratory studies

Exploratory Studies

  • Bila gagasan/persoalan yang diteliti kurang jelas, lakukan penelitian/studi eksplorasi.

  • Melalui studi eksplorasi dapat dikembangkan konsep yang lebih jelas, menetapkan prioritas penelitian, mengembangkan definisi operasional, atau memperbaiki desain penelitian.

Definisi desain penelitian jenis jenis desain penelitian

Sumber: Malhotra, 2004; Zikmund, 2002

Desain dan metode penelitian

Desain dan Metode Penelitian

Studi eksplorasi teknik kualitatif

Studi Eksplorasi: Teknik Kualitatif

Studi eksplorasi dapat dilakukan dg teknik kuantitatif maupun kualitatif. Dalam praktek, lebih banyak teknik kualitatif.

Teknik Kualitatif yang dapat digunakan antara lain:

  • Individual Depth Interview

  • Participant Observation

  • Film, Photographs, & videotape

  • Projective techniques & psychological testing

  • Case studies

  • Street ethnography

  • Elite or expert interviewing

  • Document analysis (to evaluate historical or contemporary confidential)

  • Proxemics and kinesics (use of space and body motion communication)

Studi eksplorasi secondary data analysis

Studi Eksplorasi: Secondary Data Analysis

  • Langkah awal studi eksplorasi adalah mencari data sekunder melalui literatur.

  • Bahan-bahan data sekunder adalah dokumen-dokumen yang telah dipublikasikan berbagai perusahaan/peneliti.

Example vans incorporated

Example: Vans Incorporated

  • Secondary data shows:

    • Lots of skaters were in trouble with the law for skating around the city.

    • There were not too many places for skaters go skating safely.

  • Idea: Opening large skate parks next to shopping malls.

  • Primary research was conducted to assess consumer preferences & the demand for large skate parks next to malls  research results confirmed this.

  • Decision:

    • The park opened in 1998, attendance 250,000 went over target of 100,000 skaters.

    • In 2002, Vans opened its 11th park in Orlando.

  • Conclusion: research which started with analysis of secondary data had led to successful expansion strategy.

Studi eksplorasi experience survey

Studi Eksplorasi: Experience Survey

  • Experience Survey dilakukan dengan menginterview orang-orang secara individual maupun kelompok.

  • Peneliti harus menggali gagasan-gagasan orang yang diwawancarai tentang isu-isu penting atau aspek-aspek dari subyek dan menemukan apa yang penting.

Definisi desain penelitian jenis jenis desain penelitian

Repositioning Diet Cherry Coke

  • 2001, sales down more than 8 million cases.

  • Industry experts consultation  Diet Cherry Coke was not positioned correctly.

  • Brand image was a key factor influencing soft drink sales.

  • It was perceived as conventional & old fashioned, inconsistent with Cherry Coke.

  • Research to measure the image & positioning of Diet Cherry Coke  confirmed the experts’

  • Brand then repositioned to align it more closely to the image of Cherry Coke.

  • Targeted younger drinkers.

  • Packaging was remade consistent with Cherry Coke. Placed with Cherry Coke in a teen-targeted promotional giveaway.

  • Sales recovered.

Studi eksplorasi focus group discussions fgd

Studi Eksplorasi: Focus Group Discussions (FGD)

  • Free flowing (1-3 hours)

  • Group interview (8-10 people)

  • Guided by moderator

  • Start with broad topic & focus in on specific issues

  • Using videocassettes & tapes

  • The most common uses are:

    • Testing advertising copy or marketing promotions

    • Positioning products or services

    • Testing new concepts

    • Testing usability of a product

    • Generate new ideas

When to avoid focus groups

When to Avoid Focus Groups

  • Focus groups should not be used to make a final decision.

  • Results of focus groups are not statistically valid and should be used more as a thermometer to test the temperature of the market rather than as a ruler to provide precise measurements.

  • Likewise, the following represent good examples of when to avoid using focus groups  When you need a numerical response to questions like “what percentage…?” or “how many…?”

  • Focus groups do not provide quantitative results.

  • When you need to explore issues that are very personal or sensitive in nature.

  • People are not really comfortable discussing personal topics in a group situation.

  • When you want to set prices for your products or your services.

  • Again, these results are not quantitative in nature hence it is not advisable to make final pricing decisions based on small group responses.

Studi deskriptif

Studi Deskriptif

Bentuk studi Deskriptif lebih formal dan terstruktur dibanding eksplorasi, dengan pernyataan (hipotesis) dan pertanyaan investigatif yang lebih jelas.

Studi deskriptif digunakan menjawab tujuan penelitian, seperti berikut:

  • Deskripsi fenomena atau karakteristik terkait dengan sebuah populasi (who, what, when, where, and how)

  • Estimasi proporsi populasi yang memiliki karakteristik/ perilaku tertentu

  • Menentukan persepsi ttg karakteristik produk

  • Menemukan asosiasi di antara berbagai variabel (correlational study)

Descriptive research

Descriptive Research

Time-frame of research…

  • Cross-sectional design (CSD)

  • Longitudinal design

Studi cross sectional vs longitudinal

Studi Cross-sectional vs Longitudinal

  • Studi cross-sectional dilakukan pada suatu titik waktu tertentu yg bersamaan dari berbagai tempat yg berbeda.

  • Studi longitudinal dilakukan pada berbagai pengulangan sepanjang rentang waktu tertentu dari suatu tempat yang sama.

Cross sectional designs

Cross-Sectional Designs

  • The collection of information from any given sample of population elements only once.

  • Single cross-sectional designs:only one sample of respondents and information is obtained from this sample only once.

  • Multiple cross-sectional designs: two or more samples of respondents, and information from each sample is obtained only once. Often, information from different samples is obtained at different times.

Longitudinal designs

Longitudinal Designs

  • A fixed sample (or samples) of population elements is measured repeatedly on the same variables

  • A longitudinal design differs from a cross-sectional design in that the sample or samples remain the same over time

Cross sectional data may not show change

Cross-Sectional Data may not Show Change

Brand Purchased Time Period

Period 1Period 2


Brand A200 200

Brand B300300

Brand C500500

Total 1000 1000

Longitudinal data may show substantial change

Longitudinal Data may ShowSubstantial Change

Brand Purchased in Period 1

Brand Purchased in Period 2

Brand ABrand BBrand C Total

Brand A

Brand B

Brand C


















Studi kausalitas

Studi Kausalitas

  • Studi Kausalitas: jenis penelitian yang ditujukan untuk menjawab permasalah-an mengapa.

  • Contoh: Mengapa kinerja perusahaan menurun? Karena dipengaruhi oleh faktor… (terjadi hubungan kausalitas (sebab-akibat)

  • Perhatian:

    Jika hanya hubungan korelasi bukan merupakan hubungan kausalitas

Studi kausalitas1

Studi Kausalitas

Jenis-jenishubungan (relationship) kausalitas:

1.Symmetrical Relationship. Bentukhubungandimanaduavariabelberubahbersama-sama, dg asumsiperubahanmasing-masingvariabelbukankarenaperubahanvariabel yang lain.

2.Reciprocal Relationship.Terjadijikaduavariabelsalingmemengaruhisatusama lain.

3.Asymmetrical Relationship. Bentukiniterjadijikaperubahansatuvariabel (variabelindependen) berakibatpadaperubahanvariabel lain (variabeldependen)

Potential sources of error in research designs

Total Error

Non-sampling Error

Sampling Error

Response Error

Non-response Error

Researcher Error

Interviewer Error

Respondent Error

Surrogate Information Error

Measurement Error

Problem Definition Error

Data Analysis Error

Respondent Selection Error

Questioning Error

Recording Error

Cheating/dishonest Error

Inability Error

Unwillingness Error

Potential Sources of Error in Research Designs

Sumber: Malhotra, 2004; Zikmund, 2002

Errors in research design

Errors in Research Design

  • Total error is the variation between the true mean value in the population and the observed mean value obtained in the research project.

  • Sampling error is the variation between the true mean value for the population and the true mean value for the original sample.

  • Non-sampling errors can be attributed to sources other than sampling, and they may be response/no response: including errors in problem definition, approach, scales, question-naire design, interviewing methods, and data preparation and analysis.

Errors in research design1

Errors in Research Design

  • Non-response error arises when some of the respondents included in the sample do not respond.

  • Response error arises when respondents give inaccurate answers or their answers are misrecorded or misanalyzed.

Qualitative vs quantitative research

Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research

Qualitative vs quantitative research1

Qualitative vs Quantitative Research

Features of qualitative quantitative research

Features of Qualitative & Quantitative Research

Teknik teknik kualitatif

Teknik-teknik Kualitatif

Teknik Kualitatif yang bisa digunakan al:

  • Individual Depth Interview

  • Participant Observation

  • Film, Photographs and videotape

  • Projective techniques and psychological testing

  • Case studies

  • Street ethnography

  • Elite or expert interviewing

  • Document analysis (to evaluate historical or contemporary confidential)

  • Proxemics and kinesics (use of space and body motion communication)

Individual depth interview and group interviews

Individual Depth Interview and Group Interviews

Jenis interviews

Jenis Interviews

Wawancara tidak terstruktur /Unstructured Interview


Wawancara semi terstruktur

/Semi-structured Interview

Wawancara terstruktur

/Structured Interview

Statistical studies vs case studies

Statistical studies vs. Case Studies

  • Studi secara statistikal dirancang lebih untuk mengungkapkan keluasan cakupan daripada kedalamannya. Studi ini mencoba mengungkapkan karakteristik suatu populasi dengan melakukan inferensi karakteristik suatu sampel. Hipotesis-hipotesis diuji secara kuantitatif. Generalisasi atas temuannya disajikan berdasarkan keterwakilan sampel dan validitas dari rancangannya.

  • Studi kasus lebih menekankan pada sebuah analisis kontekstual yang menyeluruh atas kejadian-kejadian atau kondisi-kondisi yang lebih sempit dan menekankan interrelasinya.

Teknik kualitatif teknik teknik projektif

Teknik Kualitatif: Teknik-Teknik Projektif

Word association: Participants are asked to match images, experiences, emotions, products and services, even people and places, to whatever is being studied.

Contoh: “Apa yang Anda pikirkan bila mendengar kata KEJU……”

Sentence completion: Participants are asked to complete a sentence

Contoh: “Lengkapi kalimat berikut ini: Restoran yang menawarkan diskon kartu kredit berarti… ….. “

Cartoons or empty balloons

Participants are asked to write the dialog for a cartoon-like picture

A cartoon test


Let’s see if we can pick up some house wares at Giant




A Cartoon Test

Teknik kualitatif teknik teknik projektif1

Teknik Kualitatif: Teknik-teknik Projektif

Component sorts: Participants are presented with a flash cards containing component features and asked to create new combinations

Sensory sorts: Participants are presented with scents, textures, and sound, usually verbalized on cards, and asked to arrange them by one or more criteria

Laddering or benefit chain: Participants are asked to link functional features to their physical and psychological benefits, both real and ideal

Thematic Apperception Test: Participants are confronted with a picture (usually a photograph or drawing) and asked to describe how the person in the picture feels and thinks

Thematic apperception test tat

Thematic Apperception Test(TAT)

Teknik kualitatif teknik teknik projektif2

Teknik Kualitatif: Teknik-teknik Projektif

  • Imagination exercises: Participants are asked to relate the properties of one thing/person/brand to another.

  • Imaginary universe: Participants are asked to assume that the brand and its users populate an entire universe; then they describe the features of this new world

  • Visitor from another planet: Participant are asked to assume that they are aliens and are confronting the product for the first time; they then describe their reactions, questions, and attitudes about purchase or retrial.

  • Personification. Participants are asked to imagine inanimate objects with the traits, characteristics, and features, and personalities of humans. “if brand X were a person, what type of person would brand X be ?

Definisi desain penelitian jenis jenis desain penelitian

TeknikKualitatif: Teknik-teknikProjektif

  • Authority figure. Participants are asked to imagine that the brand or product is an authority figure and to describe the attribute of the figure.

  • Ambiguities and paradoxes. Participants are asked to imagine a brand as something else (e.g., a Tide dog Food or Marlboro cereal), describing its attributes and position

  • Semantic mapping. Participants are presented with a four-quadrant map where different variables anchor the two different axes; they then spatially place brands, product components, or organizations within the four quadrants

  • Brand mapping. Participants are presented with different brands and asked to talk about their perceptions, usually in relation to several criteria. They may also be asked to spatially place each brand on one or more semantic map.

Definisi desain penelitian jenis jenis desain penelitian

High moisturizing





Lever 2000
















low moisturizing

Contoh Brand Mapping

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