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Western Civ. Unit 7 PP 2. The 100 Years War 1337-1453. Background. The Capetian Dynasty in France ended in 1328 with the death of Charles IV The only possible heir is the Son of Charles IV’s sister Isabella She had been married to Edward II King of England and their son was Edward III

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western civ unit 7 pp 2

Western Civ.Unit 7 PP 2

The 100 Years War1337-1453

background
Background
  • The Capetian Dynasty in France ended in 1328 with the death of Charles IV
    • The only possible heir is the Son of Charles IV’s sister Isabella
    • She had been married to Edward II King of England and their son was Edward III
      • In 1328 when Charles IV died Edward was 14 years old. He had recently become King Of England following the abdication of his father
    • The Barons of France sought to exclude Edward and chose Phillip VI Valois as King of France
the catalyst
The Catalyst
  • In 1337 Phillip VI confiscated Gascony claiming the English King had not honored his feudal obligations
  • Edward III now 15 years old claimed his right as King of France
the course of the war to 1419
The Course of the War to 1419
  • France loses most major battles (why?)
  • 3x the population
  • much wealthier nation
    • Disunity(some supported Edward III)
    • Provincial concerns
    • English military superiority(longbow, leadership, discipline)
english victory
English Victory?
  • The Battle of Crecy 1346: The longbow defeats the French Crossbow
  • The Battle of Agincourt 1415
    • English forces were led by Henry V (r. 1413-1422)
    • He defeated larger French force
    • By 1419 he is at the gates of Paris and signs the Treaty of Troyes with the French King Charles VI
      • Disinherited the Dauphin (Charles VII)
      • Henry V made the new heir to the French throne
      • Henry marries the French King’s daughter
      • Is it over?
joan of arc 1412 1431
Joan of Arc (1412-1431)
  • 17 year old peasant girl from Domremy
    • She heard voices telling her to ask the Dauphin for an army to expel the English
  • Led the French forces to victory at the Battle of Orleans in 1429
    • A few months later the Dauphin (now Charles VII) was crowned King of France in Rheims
    • The only English territory remaining was Calais
  • In 1430 Joan was captured by the Burgundians and sold to the English
    • Charles could have helped but chose not to
    • She was burned as a heretic (in 1920 she was made a saint)
costs and consequences
Costs and Consequences
  • Both Nations saw: Population decline, disruption of trade and agriculture, peasant uprisings, blurring of class distinction in warfare
    • Questioning of the Church
  • In England: 5 mil. Pounds sterling, breakdown of local order, parliament increased power, civil war (the War of the Roses)
  • In France: Nationalism, devotion to king, increased Kings power
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