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Tripartite Pact…Axis Nations Of:. World War II Begins. Hitler invades Poland, September, 1939 Great Britain and France declare war on Germany. World War II Begins. blitzkrieg = “lightning war”. U.S. Response “Cash and Carry” (1939).

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Tripartite Pact…Axis Nations Of:

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Tripartite Pact…Axis Nations Of:


World War II Begins

  • Hitler invades Poland, September, 1939

  • Great Britain and France declare war on Germany


World War II Begins

  • blitzkrieg =

  • “lightning war”


U.S. Response“Cash and Carry” (1939)

  • “Cash and Carry” (1939)-the U.S. would help Britain and France if they

  • 1. purchased American arms with cash and

  • 2. transported them across the Atlantic on their own ships.

  • (Revises the Neutrality Acts of 1936)


The Atlantic Charter

  • By 1940, Hitler was in control of much of Eastern Europe.

  • Great Britain was afraid

  • Winston Churchill (British new Prime Minister) and FDR meet on a warship to create a statement: the Atlantic Charter.

  • They pledged to seek no gains in territory and to support the right of all peoples to choose their own form of government.


The Four Freedoms (1941)

  • FDR gave “Four Freedoms” speech as part of his State of the Union Address,

  • January 6, 1941


U.S. ResponseLend-Lease (1941)

  • Lend-LeaseAct:

  • Authorized FDR to “lend” war materiel to any nation whose defense was considered necessary for U.S. national security

  • Especially: Great Britain, the Soviet Union and China


U.S. Response to Japan

  • U.S.-Japan relations stopped when Japan joined the Axis powers

  • When Japan attacked Manchuria, U.S. stopped exporting fuel and metal to Japan.

  • U.S. moved their fleet to Hawaii to show readiness


Why Attack Pearl Harbor?

  • Japan KNEW that US would oppose Japanese expansion eventually.

    • Japan knew its own weaknesses

  • US was a strong force.

  • Had to knock US Navy out completely

    • Aircraft carriers

    • If carriers survived, Japan knew it would lose


Multiple waves of torpedo bombers and regular bombers were sent to attack Pearl Harbor and Hickam Field.

A fourth wave of planes was NOT sent that would have crippled the American Navy even further!


How the Attack Worked

  • Japan sent 14 Points

    • Memo in….14 parts

    • In Japanese (we were forced to translate)

  • Memo DEMANDED that the US give Japan oil.

  • Spoke of US aggression in world affairs.


How…

  • Final part said that war was Japan’s ONLY option to protect itself from the US

    • Huh?

  • Supposed to be delivered right BEFORE the attack and negotiations had broken down.

    • Why? (Think Art of War)

  • Mistakenly delivered AFTER the shooting had started.

    • Good or bad?


The Attack

  • 7:55 am

  • Sunday

    • Figured Americans would be more relaxed

  • December 7, 1941

    • Many troops on holiday leave


  • Approximately 350 planes

    • Bombers

    • Torpedo bombers

  • Midget submarines outside Pearl Harbor


The Attack…

  • Wanted the aircraft carriers

    • Were NOT in harbor

  • Hit destroyers, battleships, and others

  • Killed approximately 2300 servicemen

  • Attack lasted about 90 minutes


Results

  • 323 planes damaged or destroyed

  • 8 battleships

    • 6 were fixed and returned to duty

  • 3 cruisers

  • 3 destroyers

  • United Americans in hatred of Japanese

    • Propaganda

    • Internment of Japanese-Americans


Reflection

  • This HAD been well-planned

  • Had trained bombing runs on an island similar to Oahu

  • Modified torpedoes to run shallow in Pearl Harbor

  • Planned weeks in advance

  • Used the 14 Part Memo as a deception to delay


Pearl Harbor

  • Japan wished to expand, but the U.S. stood in the way.

  • U.S. had cut off oil to Japan

  • U.S. naval and air forces were in the Pacific.


The sinking of the USS Arizona.


Bombing of Pearl HarborDecember 7, 1941


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