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Mineral Exploration Using Modern Remote Sensing Techniques






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John Berry Assocs. 5000 Beverly Hills Dr. AUSTIN, TX 78731 +1- 512 - 452 - 8068 jlbassoc@flash.net. Mineral Exploration Using Modern Remote Sensing Techniques. by John L. Berry. John Berry Assocs. 5000 Beverly Hills Dr. AUSTIN, TX 78731 +1- 512 - 452 - 8068 jlbassoc@flash.net.
Mineral Exploration Using Modern Remote Sensing Techniques

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Slide 1

John Berry Assocs.

5000 Beverly Hills Dr.

AUSTIN, TX 78731

+1- 512 - 452 - 8068

jlbassoc@flash.net

Mineral Exploration Using Modern Remote Sensing Techniques

by

John L. Berry

Slide 2

John Berry Assocs.

5000 Beverly Hills Dr.

AUSTIN, TX 78731

+1- 512 - 452 - 8068

jlbassoc@flash.net

ASTER DEM with Contours

Bands 1,2,3 Composite

ASTER DEM

Oblique View of Band 1,2,3

composite draped over DEM

ASTER DEM & Draped Image

Slide 3

John Berry Assocs.

5000 Beverly Hills Dr.

AUSTIN, TX 78731

+1- 512 - 452 - 8068

jlbassoc@flash.net

Comparison of ASTER Bands (bottom) with TM bands (top). Note multiple narrow ASTER bands where TM has one broad band in SWIR and TIR.

Slide 4

John Berry Assocs.

5000 Beverly Hills Dr.

AUSTIN, TX 78731

+1- 512 - 452 - 8068

jlbassoc@flash.net

Landsat TM and ASTER SWIR Band Coverage of Clay Mineral Spectra. ASTER can resolve Kaolinite, Alunite, Illite, etc..

Slide 5

John Berry Assocs.

5000 Beverly Hills Dr.

AUSTIN, TX 78731

+1- 512 - 452 - 8068

jlbassoc@flash.net

Slide 6

John Berry Assocs.

5000 Beverly Hills Dr.

AUSTIN, TX 78731

+1- 512 - 452 - 8068

jlbassoc@flash.net

Standard USGS reference spectra for Na-Sericite, K-sericite, phengite and Mg/Fe phengite in the SWIR region, showing the progressive shift of the absorption band position to longer wavelengths (left). The same spectra convolved to the ASTER band configuration showing the variation in the shape of the 2209 nm absorption band for the same minerals (right) (Courtesy AD, Inc., website)

Slide 7

John Berry Assocs.

5000 Beverly Hills Dr.

AUSTIN, TX 78731

+1- 512 - 452 - 8068

jlbassoc@flash.net

Emissivity Spectra of Common Rocks

showing shift in emissivity low from 8.6 um

(ASTER Band 11) for granite to 10.7 um

(ASTER Band 13) for dunite.

This shift forms the basis for using the

thermal bands of ASTER to map lithology

Slide 8

John Berry Assocs.

5000 Beverly Hills Dr.

AUSTIN, TX 78731

+1- 512 - 452 - 8068

jlbassoc@flash.net

Thermal emissivity

spectra of some

important minerals

convolved with the

ASTER thermal bands,

superimposed on

each other by normal-

izing to a value of 1.0

at 8.0 um (Band 10).

The spectral curves

differ even more than

those for rocks. Thus

alteration zones char-

acterized by these

minerals can be map-

ped using ASTER TIR.

Slide 9

John Berry Assocs.

5000 Beverly Hills Dr.

AUSTIN, TX 78731

+1- 512 - 452 - 8068

jlbassoc@flash.net

Green

Red

Minerals are widely separated on this plot, and would show up

as green (Dunite) to orange (Albite) if Band 13 were assigned

to Greeen and Band 12 to Red.

Slide 10

John Berry Assocs.

5000 Beverly Hills Dr.

AUSTIN, TX 78731

+1- 512 - 452 - 8068

jlbassoc@flash.net

The linear distribution shows that

there is a strong correlation between

the emisssivity spectra of different

minerals in bands 13 and 14, a phen-

omenon that is also seen in the SWIR

region, but for vegetation spectra.

This means that in an image, dunite

(olivine) would be dark and quartz

would be bright, but they would have

the same color. This is therefore NOT

a good band combination

Using ratio composites (next slide)

helps to spread the data points out in

color space, giving better discrimination

Slide 11

John Berry Assocs.

5000 Beverly Hills Dr.

AUSTIN, TX 78731

+1- 512 - 452 - 8068

jlbassoc@flash.net

This is actually an enlarged section of a ternary diagram,

but Excel will not display it as such. It shows that good

separation of the minerals in color space can be achieved

using Thermal band ratios.

Slide 12

John Berry Assocs.

5000 Beverly Hills Dr.

AUSTIN, TX 78731

+1- 512 - 452 - 8068

jlbassoc@flash.net

This image shows different ages of lava flow - the youngest being the whitest. The overall variation in the image is from red to green, with little blue: this reflects the linearity of the distribution of points on the previous slide. The N-S dark line on the east edge appears to be a fault in alluvium.

Ethiopian Rift Valley Thermal image

Slide 14

John Berry Assocs.

5000 Beverly Hills Dr.

AUSTIN, TX 78731

+1- 512 - 452 - 8068

jlbassoc@flash.net

Khoy Ophiolite, NW Iran.

ASTER Bands 3,2,1 draped over DEM

Ophiolite nappes are at left

Slide 15

John Berry Assocs.

5000 Beverly Hills Dr.

AUSTIN, TX 78731

+1- 512 - 452 - 8068

jlbassoc@flash.net

Bands 7,3,1, ASTER Composite

Khoy Area: 7-3-1 ASTER composite compared to

Geological Map. Note the greater amount of detail on the

image in the Ultramafics at lower left

Slide 16

3 NW-trending

Nappes

Ultramafic Rocks

Tectonic Mélanges

Basalts

Khoy

John Berry Assocs.

5000 Beverly Hills Dr.

AUSTIN, TX 78731

+1- 512 - 452 - 8068

jlbassoc@flash.net

Slide 17

John Berry Assocs.

5000 Beverly Hills Dr.

AUSTIN, TX 78731

+1- 512 - 452 - 8068

jlbassoc@flash.net

Left: 7,3,1 Composite. Red Box outlines area of next 2 slides. Blue Box outlines the slide after that

Right: 4/7-3/4-2/1 Abram Band Ratio Composite

Slide 18

John Berry Assocs.

5000 Beverly Hills Dr.

AUSTIN, TX 78731

+1- 512 - 452 - 8068

jlbassoc@flash.net

KHOY, IRAN: 7-3-1 Composite, showing

Tectonic Windows and Related Folds

Slide 19

John Berry Assocs.

5000 Beverly Hills Dr.

AUSTIN, TX 78731

+1- 512 - 452 - 8068

jlbassoc@flash.net

John Berry Assocs.

5000 Beverly Hills Dr.

AUSTIN, TX 78731

+1- 512 - 452 - 8068

jlbassoc@flash.net

KHOY, IRAN:

ASTER Band Ratios, showing

Tectonic winows and related Folds

Slide 20

OIB

Band Ratio 4/7-3/4-2/1 composite distinguishes

Ocean Island Basalt (OIB)

from mid-Ocean Ridge

(MORB) Basalt

E-MORB


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