Mexico political and economic change
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Mexico Political and Economic Change. Sara Shonkwiler. Colonial Rule Under Spain (1519-1821). Racial class system created status differences between natives and the Spanish Authoritarian rule under Spanish Government: viceroy ruled Mexico as the personal representative of the King of Spain

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Mexico Political and Economic Change

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Mexico political and economic change

Mexico Political and Economic Change

Sara Shonkwiler

Colonial rule under spain 1519 1821

Colonial Rule Under Spain (1519-1821)

  • Racial class system created status differences between natives and the Spanish

  • Authoritarian rule under Spanish Government: viceroy ruled Mexico as the personal representative of the King of Spain

  • Mercantilist system: controlled by Spain and served Spanish interests, had a great wealth of natural resources

Miguel hidalgo rebellion 1810 1821

Miguel Hidalgo -- Rebellion 1810-1821

  • Rebellion against Spain 1810

  • At first supported by liberals, but eventually gets out of control

  • Rebellion crushed -- Hidalgo executed

  • Eleven years later (1821) Mexico gains independence from Spain

  • New country lacks stability with 36 presidents serving in just 20 years

Problem immediately following independence

Problem Immediately Following Independence

  • Instability: Low legitimacy because the new government did not have the power or control of the monarchy

  • Control of Military: Instability allowed military commanders (like General and President Santa Anna) to exercise control

  • Domination: Mexican American War, Gadsden Purchase, Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo -- Mexicans lose large amounts of land to United States

  • Military and Liberals clashed over how to run new country

Mexican american war 1846 1848

Mexican American War 1846 - 1848

  • United States realizes that Mexico lacks strong governmental control

  • United States in a period of expansionism and pushes south of the Texas border

  • Mexico loses Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, Utah and some of Colorado (Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo)

Constitution of 1857

Constitution of 1857

  • Democratic principles

  • Brings liberal president, Benito Juarez, to power

  • Juarez popular with ordinary citizens and elite because of his military background

Maximilian 1864 1867

Maximilian (1864-1867)

  • Take over by European powers (mainly French)

  • Maximilian put in authoritarian command of Mexico

  • Executed three years later and Juarez comes to back to power, but Mexico continues to lack stability

The porfiriato 1876 1911

“The Porfiriato” (1876-1911)

  • Military coup by Porfirio Diaz

  • Political stability under his authoritarian government

  • Economic growth and increased foreign investment

  • As country begins to develop the gap between the rich and poor grows (most Mexicans still poor)

Mexican revolution

Mexican Revolution

  • Political instability

  • Diaz ousted by elites who were bothered by his greed

Mexico political and economic change

  • Patron-client system: during the rebellion popular political/military strongmen (such as Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa) formed patron-client systems

  • Constitution of 1917: structure of democratic government, three branches, competitive elections

  • Following Constitution violence continued with political assassination into the 1920s

Separation of church and state

Separation of Church and State

  • Cristeros Rebellion: rebellion led by priests against federal regulation of church-affiliated school and church services

  • Liberals thought churches were conservative

  • Priests not allowed to vote

  • Federal restrictions of church-affiliated schools

  • Suspended religious services

Partido revolucionario institucional pri

Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI)

  • Brought Caudillos under one big political party in 1929

  • Stability, brought conflicting leaders together

  • Pass around the presidency after each sexenio (six-year term)

  • Other leaders given influential governmental positions

Partido revolucionario institucional pri1

Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI)

  • Mexicanization: glorified Mexican history and culture instead of trying to imitate Europeans or North Americans

  • One-party rule: not illegal for other parties to run, but never significant opposition

  • State and party were essentially merged and the president was extremely powerful

Cardenas upheaval 1934 1940

Cardenas Upheaval (1934-1940)

  • Lazaro Cardenas second PRI president

  • Listened to peasants

  • Political Changes:

    • Redistributed land: large landowners and foreigners lost land, put into ejidos (small collective farms) for peasants

    • Nationalization: PEMEX created, got rid of big foreign business owners, state control of many industries

Cardenas upheaval 1934 19401

Cardenas Upheaval (1934-1940)

  • Public works: Government built roads, provided electricity and public services

  • Union Organizations: Cardenas encouraged the development of peasant and union organizations with leaders in the president’s cabinet

  • Power of Presidency: President became more powerful and stable, he let go of power at the end of sexenio allowing for peaceful transition of power

Import substitution industrialization

Import Substitution Industrialization

  • High protective tariffs: makes local goods cheaper than foreign made goods

  • Government nationalized important industries: individuals had relatively little money so government promoted industrialization

  • Government subsidized certain industries

State corporatism

State Corporatism

  • Under Cardenas the government remained state corporatist

  • The president determined who represented different groups to the government

Miguel aleman

Miguel Aleman

  • Conservative

  • Encouraged entrepreneurship and foreign investment

  • Following him was a socialist Cardenas like president

  • Pendulum Theory: Mexican government shifted from socialist reforms to free-market economic development depending on the times

1968 olympics

1968 Olympics

  • Student protests about lavish expenditures on the olympics

  • Mexican Army fired on peaceful protestors, killing around 400

  • Regime pushed too far

  • Students of that generation wanted reforms to authoritarian government

Tecnicos 1970s

Tecnicos (1970s)

  • Educated, business leaders take control of government

  • Moderate, free-market politics

1985 earthquake

1985 Earthquake

  • Government responded inadequately

  • “Self-help” organizations set up in Mexico City to help the poor

  • Organizations created base for leftist party, PRD

Neoliberalism 1980s

Neoliberalism (1980s)

  • Free markets

  • Balanced Budgets

  • Privatization

  • Free Trade

  • Limited Government Intervention in the Economy

Early 1990s pri loses dominance

Early 1990s - PRI Loses Dominance

  • Cuauhtemoc Cardenas challenges PRI candidate Carlos Salinas in presidential election

  • Salinas wins in supposedly fraudulent election and has little public support in office

  • PRI loses several gubernatorial elections

1990 creation of ife

1990 - Creation of IFE

  • Instituto Federal Electoral (IFE): responsible for organizing and overseeing federal elections in Mexico

  • Public, autonomous, independent agency

  • What IFE does:

    • Prepare, organize, conduct and watch federal elections

    • Revision and adjustment of electoral geography

    • Maintains the rights of parties and political groups

    • Creates civic educational programs

1990 creation of trife

1990 - Creation of TRIFE

  • Tribunal Federal Electoral (TRIFE): The Electoral Tribunal oversees all rulings by electoral authorities, the Constitution, and the laws that come from the Constitution

Trife responsibilities

TRIFE Responsibilities

  • Dissents against results for national election

  • Appeals against the rulings/acts of the federal electoral authority

  • Trials of electoral review that could be significant

  • Trials for citizens’ electoral rights

  • Can order no electoral laws that violate Mexican Constitution

1994 nafta

1994 - NAFTA

  • North American Free Trade Agreement

  • Trade agreement between United States Canada and Mexico

  • Salinas, the Mexican President, proposed NAFTA

  • Mexico gains: access to U.S. markets, stability in economy, and ensures Salinas’ neoliberal reforms are kept

1994 nafta continued

1994 - NAFTA (continued)

  • NAFTA included:

    • Requirement that countries reduce their tariffs

    • Rules of Origin: stopped foreign countries from investing in Mexico just to export tax-free to the U.S.

    • Ways to resolve disputes between countries

    • Protection for foreign investors

1994 effects of nafta

1994 - Effects of NAFTA

  • Trade between the United States and Mexico dramatically increases

  • Since NAFTA, Mexico’s exports have become more varied and are now less dependent on oil

  • Mexico depends more on the United States

  • Mexico’s biggest export -- immigrants not included in agreement

1994 chiapas uprising

1994 - Chiapas Uprising

  • Indian peasants who rose up immediately following the signing of NAFTA

  • Chiapas extremely poor

  • NAFTA makes it harder for them to compete

  • Zapatista National Liberation Army -- organized the uprising

  • Chiapas were afraid that cheap American corn would replace their agriculture economy which lacked the technology of American imports

1994 colosio assassinated

1994 - Colosio Assassinated

  • Colosio: PRI presidential candidate

  • Supported by PRI political machine

  • Rumor that foreign minister Camacho would run for president - previous president Salino said that Colosio was the PRI candidate

  • Camacho was dealing with Chiapas uprising eventually stated he would not run

  • Colosio was assassinated

1994 peso collapses

1994 - Peso Collapses

  • Salinas stimulated economy in the short run, but caused long run instability

  • Investors cautious to invest in Chiapas area with uprising occurring

  • Increased spending

  • Hyperinflation (1985-1993)

  • Debt loads

  • Low oil prices

Short run factors in peso crisis

Short run factors in Peso Crisis?

  • Chiapas uprising and Colosio assassination made investors more cautious

  • Fixed exchange rate system: reacting to investors caution accepted pesos and gave back dollars, but had limited supply of dollars → forced government to devalue the peso

  • Government tried to roll over debt, but investors unwilling to buy it

1994 zedillo wins presidency

1994 - Zedillo Wins Presidency

  • After Colosio assassinated there are few choices left for president

  • Cabinet members excluded because of rule that presidential candidate cannot have held public office for the six months leading up to their offices

  • Zedillo, the former Educational minister, is picked by Salino

Zedillo presidency

Zedillo Presidency

  • Last PRI President

  • Colosio’s campaign manager → became president after Colosio was assassinated

  • Zedillo continued many of Salino’s (former president’s) policies

  • He tried to restore public confidence (which was shattered by Salino’s fraudulent election and several scandals during his administration)
























What happened in 1994 and how has mexico changed since then

What happened in 1994? and how has Mexico changed since then?

  • List major events in Mexico in 1994 (split into economic and political change)

  • How has Mexico changed as a result of these major events?

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