mexico political and economic change
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Mexico Political and Economic Change

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 37

Mexico Political and Economic Change - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Mexico Political and Economic Change. Sara Shonkwiler. Colonial Rule Under Spain (1519-1821). Racial class system created status differences between natives and the Spanish Authoritarian rule under Spanish Government: viceroy ruled Mexico as the personal representative of the King of Spain

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Mexico Political and Economic Change' - maxima

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
colonial rule under spain 1519 1821
Colonial Rule Under Spain (1519-1821)
  • Racial class system created status differences between natives and the Spanish
  • Authoritarian rule under Spanish Government: viceroy ruled Mexico as the personal representative of the King of Spain
  • Mercantilist system: controlled by Spain and served Spanish interests, had a great wealth of natural resources
miguel hidalgo rebellion 1810 1821
Miguel Hidalgo -- Rebellion 1810-1821
  • Rebellion against Spain 1810
  • At first supported by liberals, but eventually gets out of control
  • Rebellion crushed -- Hidalgo executed
  • Eleven years later (1821) Mexico gains independence from Spain
  • New country lacks stability with 36 presidents serving in just 20 years
problem immediately following independence
Problem Immediately Following Independence
  • Instability: Low legitimacy because the new government did not have the power or control of the monarchy
  • Control of Military: Instability allowed military commanders (like General and President Santa Anna) to exercise control
  • Domination: Mexican American War, Gadsden Purchase, Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo -- Mexicans lose large amounts of land to United States
  • Military and Liberals clashed over how to run new country
mexican american war 1846 1848
Mexican American War 1846 - 1848
  • United States realizes that Mexico lacks strong governmental control
  • United States in a period of expansionism and pushes south of the Texas border
  • Mexico loses Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, Utah and some of Colorado (Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo)
constitution of 1857
Constitution of 1857
  • Democratic principles
  • Brings liberal president, Benito Juarez, to power
  • Juarez popular with ordinary citizens and elite because of his military background
maximilian 1864 1867
Maximilian (1864-1867)
  • Take over by European powers (mainly French)
  • Maximilian put in authoritarian command of Mexico
  • Executed three years later and Juarez comes to back to power, but Mexico continues to lack stability
the porfiriato 1876 1911
“The Porfiriato” (1876-1911)
  • Military coup by Porfirio Diaz
  • Political stability under his authoritarian government
  • Economic growth and increased foreign investment
  • As country begins to develop the gap between the rich and poor grows (most Mexicans still poor)
mexican revolution
Mexican Revolution
  • Political instability
  • Diaz ousted by elites who were bothered by his greed

Patron-client system: during the rebellion popular political/military strongmen (such as Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa) formed patron-client systems

  • Constitution of 1917: structure of democratic government, three branches, competitive elections
  • Following Constitution violence continued with political assassination into the 1920s
separation of church and state
Separation of Church and State
  • Cristeros Rebellion: rebellion led by priests against federal regulation of church-affiliated school and church services
  • Liberals thought churches were conservative
  • Priests not allowed to vote
  • Federal restrictions of church-affiliated schools
  • Suspended religious services
partido revolucionario institucional pri
Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI)
  • Brought Caudillos under one big political party in 1929
  • Stability, brought conflicting leaders together
  • Pass around the presidency after each sexenio (six-year term)
  • Other leaders given influential governmental positions
partido revolucionario institucional pri1
Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI)
  • Mexicanization: glorified Mexican history and culture instead of trying to imitate Europeans or North Americans
  • One-party rule: not illegal for other parties to run, but never significant opposition
  • State and party were essentially merged and the president was extremely powerful
cardenas upheaval 1934 1940
Cardenas Upheaval (1934-1940)
  • Lazaro Cardenas second PRI president
  • Listened to peasants
  • Political Changes:
    • Redistributed land: large landowners and foreigners lost land, put into ejidos (small collective farms) for peasants
    • Nationalization: PEMEX created, got rid of big foreign business owners, state control of many industries
cardenas upheaval 1934 19401
Cardenas Upheaval (1934-1940)
  • Public works: Government built roads, provided electricity and public services
  • Union Organizations: Cardenas encouraged the development of peasant and union organizations with leaders in the president’s cabinet
  • Power of Presidency: President became more powerful and stable, he let go of power at the end of sexenio allowing for peaceful transition of power
import substitution industrialization
Import Substitution Industrialization
  • High protective tariffs: makes local goods cheaper than foreign made goods
  • Government nationalized important industries: individuals had relatively little money so government promoted industrialization
  • Government subsidized certain industries
state corporatism
State Corporatism
  • Under Cardenas the government remained state corporatist
  • The president determined who represented different groups to the government
miguel aleman
Miguel Aleman
  • Conservative
  • Encouraged entrepreneurship and foreign investment
  • Following him was a socialist Cardenas like president
  • Pendulum Theory: Mexican government shifted from socialist reforms to free-market economic development depending on the times
1968 olympics
1968 Olympics
  • Student protests about lavish expenditures on the olympics
  • Mexican Army fired on peaceful protestors, killing around 400
  • Regime pushed too far
  • Students of that generation wanted reforms to authoritarian government
tecnicos 1970s
Tecnicos (1970s)
  • Educated, business leaders take control of government
  • Moderate, free-market politics
1985 earthquake
1985 Earthquake
  • Government responded inadequately
  • “Self-help” organizations set up in Mexico City to help the poor
  • Organizations created base for leftist party, PRD
neoliberalism 1980s
Neoliberalism (1980s)
  • Free markets
  • Balanced Budgets
  • Privatization
  • Free Trade
  • Limited Government Intervention in the Economy
early 1990s pri loses dominance
Early 1990s - PRI Loses Dominance
  • Cuauhtemoc Cardenas challenges PRI candidate Carlos Salinas in presidential election
  • Salinas wins in supposedly fraudulent election and has little public support in office
  • PRI loses several gubernatorial elections
1990 creation of ife
1990 - Creation of IFE
  • Instituto Federal Electoral (IFE): responsible for organizing and overseeing federal elections in Mexico
  • Public, autonomous, independent agency
  • What IFE does:
    • Prepare, organize, conduct and watch federal elections
    • Revision and adjustment of electoral geography
    • Maintains the rights of parties and political groups
    • Creates civic educational programs
1990 creation of trife
1990 - Creation of TRIFE
  • Tribunal Federal Electoral (TRIFE): The Electoral Tribunal oversees all rulings by electoral authorities, the Constitution, and the laws that come from the Constitution
trife responsibilities
TRIFE Responsibilities
  • Dissents against results for national election
  • Appeals against the rulings/acts of the federal electoral authority
  • Trials of electoral review that could be significant
  • Trials for citizens’ electoral rights
  • Can order no electoral laws that violate Mexican Constitution
1994 nafta
1994 - NAFTA
  • North American Free Trade Agreement
  • Trade agreement between United States Canada and Mexico
  • Salinas, the Mexican President, proposed NAFTA
  • Mexico gains: access to U.S. markets, stability in economy, and ensures Salinas’ neoliberal reforms are kept
1994 nafta continued
1994 - NAFTA (continued)
  • NAFTA included:
    • Requirement that countries reduce their tariffs
    • Rules of Origin: stopped foreign countries from investing in Mexico just to export tax-free to the U.S.
    • Ways to resolve disputes between countries
    • Protection for foreign investors
1994 effects of nafta
1994 - Effects of NAFTA
  • Trade between the United States and Mexico dramatically increases
  • Since NAFTA, Mexico’s exports have become more varied and are now less dependent on oil
  • Mexico depends more on the United States
  • Mexico’s biggest export -- immigrants not included in agreement
1994 chiapas uprising
1994 - Chiapas Uprising
  • Indian peasants who rose up immediately following the signing of NAFTA
  • Chiapas extremely poor
  • NAFTA makes it harder for them to compete
  • Zapatista National Liberation Army -- organized the uprising
  • Chiapas were afraid that cheap American corn would replace their agriculture economy which lacked the technology of American imports
1994 colosio assassinated
1994 - Colosio Assassinated
  • Colosio: PRI presidential candidate
  • Supported by PRI political machine
  • Rumor that foreign minister Camacho would run for president - previous president Salino said that Colosio was the PRI candidate
  • Camacho was dealing with Chiapas uprising eventually stated he would not run
  • Colosio was assassinated
1994 peso collapses
1994 - Peso Collapses
  • Salinas stimulated economy in the short run, but caused long run instability
  • Investors cautious to invest in Chiapas area with uprising occurring
  • Increased spending
  • Hyperinflation (1985-1993)
  • Debt loads
  • Low oil prices
short run factors in peso crisis
Short run factors in Peso Crisis?
  • Chiapas uprising and Colosio assassination made investors more cautious
  • Fixed exchange rate system: reacting to investors caution accepted pesos and gave back dollars, but had limited supply of dollars → forced government to devalue the peso
  • Government tried to roll over debt, but investors unwilling to buy it
1994 zedillo wins presidency
1994 - Zedillo Wins Presidency
  • After Colosio assassinated there are few choices left for president
  • Cabinet members excluded because of rule that presidential candidate cannot have held public office for the six months leading up to their offices
  • Zedillo, the former Educational minister, is picked by Salino
zedillo presidency
Zedillo Presidency
  • Last PRI President
  • Colosio’s campaign manager → became president after Colosio was assassinated
  • Zedillo continued many of Salino’s (former president’s) policies
  • He tried to restore public confidence (which was shattered by Salino’s fraudulent election and several scandals during his administration)
what happened in 1994 and how has mexico changed since then
What happened in 1994? and how has Mexico changed since then?
  • List major events in Mexico in 1994 (split into economic and political change)
  • How has Mexico changed as a result of these major events?