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Mexico Political and Economic Change. Sara Shonkwiler. Colonial Rule Under Spain (1519-1821). Racial class system created status differences between natives and the Spanish Authoritarian rule under Spanish Government: viceroy ruled Mexico as the personal representative of the King of Spain

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colonial rule under spain 1519 1821
Colonial Rule Under Spain (1519-1821)
  • Racial class system created status differences between natives and the Spanish
  • Authoritarian rule under Spanish Government: viceroy ruled Mexico as the personal representative of the King of Spain
  • Mercantilist system: controlled by Spain and served Spanish interests, had a great wealth of natural resources
miguel hidalgo rebellion 1810 1821
Miguel Hidalgo -- Rebellion 1810-1821
  • Rebellion against Spain 1810
  • At first supported by liberals, but eventually gets out of control
  • Rebellion crushed -- Hidalgo executed
  • Eleven years later (1821) Mexico gains independence from Spain
  • New country lacks stability with 36 presidents serving in just 20 years
problem immediately following independence
Problem Immediately Following Independence
  • Instability: Low legitimacy because the new government did not have the power or control of the monarchy
  • Control of Military: Instability allowed military commanders (like General and President Santa Anna) to exercise control
  • Domination: Mexican American War, Gadsden Purchase, Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo -- Mexicans lose large amounts of land to United States
  • Military and Liberals clashed over how to run new country
mexican american war 1846 1848
Mexican American War 1846 - 1848
  • United States realizes that Mexico lacks strong governmental control
  • United States in a period of expansionism and pushes south of the Texas border
  • Mexico loses Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, Utah and some of Colorado (Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo)
constitution of 1857
Constitution of 1857
  • Democratic principles
  • Brings liberal president, Benito Juarez, to power
  • Juarez popular with ordinary citizens and elite because of his military background
maximilian 1864 1867
Maximilian (1864-1867)
  • Take over by European powers (mainly French)
  • Maximilian put in authoritarian command of Mexico
  • Executed three years later and Juarez comes to back to power, but Mexico continues to lack stability
the porfiriato 1876 1911
“The Porfiriato” (1876-1911)
  • Military coup by Porfirio Diaz
  • Political stability under his authoritarian government
  • Economic growth and increased foreign investment
  • As country begins to develop the gap between the rich and poor grows (most Mexicans still poor)
mexican revolution
Mexican Revolution
  • Political instability
  • Diaz ousted by elites who were bothered by his greed
slide10

Patron-client system: during the rebellion popular political/military strongmen (such as Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa) formed patron-client systems

  • Constitution of 1917: structure of democratic government, three branches, competitive elections
  • Following Constitution violence continued with political assassination into the 1920s
separation of church and state
Separation of Church and State
  • Cristeros Rebellion: rebellion led by priests against federal regulation of church-affiliated school and church services
  • Liberals thought churches were conservative
  • Priests not allowed to vote
  • Federal restrictions of church-affiliated schools
  • Suspended religious services
partido revolucionario institucional pri
Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI)
  • Brought Caudillos under one big political party in 1929
  • Stability, brought conflicting leaders together
  • Pass around the presidency after each sexenio (six-year term)
  • Other leaders given influential governmental positions
partido revolucionario institucional pri1
Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI)
  • Mexicanization: glorified Mexican history and culture instead of trying to imitate Europeans or North Americans
  • One-party rule: not illegal for other parties to run, but never significant opposition
  • State and party were essentially merged and the president was extremely powerful
cardenas upheaval 1934 1940
Cardenas Upheaval (1934-1940)
  • Lazaro Cardenas second PRI president
  • Listened to peasants
  • Political Changes:
    • Redistributed land: large landowners and foreigners lost land, put into ejidos (small collective farms) for peasants
    • Nationalization: PEMEX created, got rid of big foreign business owners, state control of many industries
cardenas upheaval 1934 19401
Cardenas Upheaval (1934-1940)
  • Public works: Government built roads, provided electricity and public services
  • Union Organizations: Cardenas encouraged the development of peasant and union organizations with leaders in the president’s cabinet
  • Power of Presidency: President became more powerful and stable, he let go of power at the end of sexenio allowing for peaceful transition of power
import substitution industrialization
Import Substitution Industrialization
  • High protective tariffs: makes local goods cheaper than foreign made goods
  • Government nationalized important industries: individuals had relatively little money so government promoted industrialization
  • Government subsidized certain industries
state corporatism
State Corporatism
  • Under Cardenas the government remained state corporatist
  • The president determined who represented different groups to the government
miguel aleman
Miguel Aleman
  • Conservative
  • Encouraged entrepreneurship and foreign investment
  • Following him was a socialist Cardenas like president
  • Pendulum Theory: Mexican government shifted from socialist reforms to free-market economic development depending on the times
1968 olympics
1968 Olympics
  • Student protests about lavish expenditures on the olympics
  • Mexican Army fired on peaceful protestors, killing around 400
  • Regime pushed too far
  • Students of that generation wanted reforms to authoritarian government
tecnicos 1970s
Tecnicos (1970s)
  • Educated, business leaders take control of government
  • Moderate, free-market politics
1985 earthquake
1985 Earthquake
  • Government responded inadequately
  • “Self-help” organizations set up in Mexico City to help the poor
  • Organizations created base for leftist party, PRD
neoliberalism 1980s
Neoliberalism (1980s)
  • Free markets
  • Balanced Budgets
  • Privatization
  • Free Trade
  • Limited Government Intervention in the Economy
early 1990s pri loses dominance
Early 1990s - PRI Loses Dominance
  • Cuauhtemoc Cardenas challenges PRI candidate Carlos Salinas in presidential election
  • Salinas wins in supposedly fraudulent election and has little public support in office
  • PRI loses several gubernatorial elections
1990 creation of ife
1990 - Creation of IFE
  • Instituto Federal Electoral (IFE): responsible for organizing and overseeing federal elections in Mexico
  • Public, autonomous, independent agency
  • What IFE does:
    • Prepare, organize, conduct and watch federal elections
    • Revision and adjustment of electoral geography
    • Maintains the rights of parties and political groups
    • Creates civic educational programs
1990 creation of trife
1990 - Creation of TRIFE
  • Tribunal Federal Electoral (TRIFE): The Electoral Tribunal oversees all rulings by electoral authorities, the Constitution, and the laws that come from the Constitution
trife responsibilities
TRIFE Responsibilities
  • Dissents against results for national election
  • Appeals against the rulings/acts of the federal electoral authority
  • Trials of electoral review that could be significant
  • Trials for citizens’ electoral rights
  • Can order no electoral laws that violate Mexican Constitution
1994 nafta
1994 - NAFTA
  • North American Free Trade Agreement
  • Trade agreement between United States Canada and Mexico
  • Salinas, the Mexican President, proposed NAFTA
  • Mexico gains: access to U.S. markets, stability in economy, and ensures Salinas’ neoliberal reforms are kept
1994 nafta continued
1994 - NAFTA (continued)
  • NAFTA included:
    • Requirement that countries reduce their tariffs
    • Rules of Origin: stopped foreign countries from investing in Mexico just to export tax-free to the U.S.
    • Ways to resolve disputes between countries
    • Protection for foreign investors
1994 effects of nafta
1994 - Effects of NAFTA
  • Trade between the United States and Mexico dramatically increases
  • Since NAFTA, Mexico’s exports have become more varied and are now less dependent on oil
  • Mexico depends more on the United States
  • Mexico’s biggest export -- immigrants not included in agreement
1994 chiapas uprising
1994 - Chiapas Uprising
  • Indian peasants who rose up immediately following the signing of NAFTA
  • Chiapas extremely poor
  • NAFTA makes it harder for them to compete
  • Zapatista National Liberation Army -- organized the uprising
  • Chiapas were afraid that cheap American corn would replace their agriculture economy which lacked the technology of American imports
1994 colosio assassinated
1994 - Colosio Assassinated
  • Colosio: PRI presidential candidate
  • Supported by PRI political machine
  • Rumor that foreign minister Camacho would run for president - previous president Salino said that Colosio was the PRI candidate
  • Camacho was dealing with Chiapas uprising eventually stated he would not run
  • Colosio was assassinated
1994 peso collapses
1994 - Peso Collapses
  • Salinas stimulated economy in the short run, but caused long run instability
  • Investors cautious to invest in Chiapas area with uprising occurring
  • Increased spending
  • Hyperinflation (1985-1993)
  • Debt loads
  • Low oil prices
short run factors in peso crisis
Short run factors in Peso Crisis?
  • Chiapas uprising and Colosio assassination made investors more cautious
  • Fixed exchange rate system: reacting to investors caution accepted pesos and gave back dollars, but had limited supply of dollars → forced government to devalue the peso
  • Government tried to roll over debt, but investors unwilling to buy it
1994 zedillo wins presidency
1994 - Zedillo Wins Presidency
  • After Colosio assassinated there are few choices left for president
  • Cabinet members excluded because of rule that presidential candidate cannot have held public office for the six months leading up to their offices
  • Zedillo, the former Educational minister, is picked by Salino
zedillo presidency
Zedillo Presidency
  • Last PRI President
  • Colosio’s campaign manager → became president after Colosio was assassinated
  • Zedillo continued many of Salino’s (former president’s) policies
  • He tried to restore public confidence (which was shattered by Salino’s fraudulent election and several scandals during his administration)
sources
Sources
  • http://www.marxists.org/history/etol/newspape/socialistvoice/ChiapasPR47.html
  • http://www.ustr.gov/trade-agreements/free-trade-agreements/north-american-free-trade-agreement-nafta
  • http://articles.latimes.com/2012/jun/17/world/la-fg-mexico-colosio-film-20120617
  • https://www.frbatlanta.org/.../J_whi811.pd..
  • http://www.nytimes.com/1994/12/29/world/a-year-to-forget-1994-leaves-mexico-reeling.html
  • http://www.pbs.org/itvs/storm-that-swept-mexico/the-revolution/faces-revolution/lazaro-cardenas/
  • http://www.pbs.org/itvs/storm-that-swept-mexico/the-revolution/faces-revolution/emiliano-zapata/
  • http://www.pbs.org/itvs/storm-that-swept-mexico/the-revolution/faces-revolution/porfirio-diaz/
  • http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/289313/Institutional-Revolutionary-Party-PRI
  • http://www.nndb.com/people/816/000095531/
  • http://www.history.com/topics/mexican-american-war
  • http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/181196/Constitution-of-1857
  • http://www.heritage-history.com/?c=read&author=noll&book=mexico&story=juarez
  • http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/370459/Maximilian
  • http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/emperor-of-mexico-executed
  • http://mexicanhistory.org/Diaz.htm
  • http://www.biography.com/people/porfirio-d%C3%ADaz-40907
  • http://edsitement.neh.gov/feature/mexican-revolution-november-20th-1910
  • http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052748703740704575095704065365166
  • http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/656219/Ernesto-Zedillo
  • http://www.ife.org.mx/portal/site/ifev2/Internacional_English/
what happened in 1994 and how has mexico changed since then
What happened in 1994? and how has Mexico changed since then?
  • List major events in Mexico in 1994 (split into economic and political change)
  • How has Mexico changed as a result of these major events?
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