Components receivers and instrumentation for ground based mm submm astronomy
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Components, Receivers, and Instrumentation for Ground-Based mm/submm Astronomy. B.Lazareff, G.Butin, M.Carter, J.Y.Chenu, A.L.Fontana, S.Mahieu, D.Maier, F.Mattiocco, P.Serres K.Schuster, N.Krebs, T.Scherer, M.Schicke. Outline. Existing facilities Drivers for development

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Components receivers and instrumentation for ground based mm submm astronomy

Components, Receivers, and Instrumentation for Ground-Based mm/submm Astronomy

B.Lazareff, G.Butin, M.Carter, J.Y.Chenu, A.L.Fontana, S.Mahieu, D.Maier, F.Mattiocco, P.Serres

K.Schuster, N.Krebs, T.Scherer, M.Schicke


Outline
Outline mm/submm Astronomy

  • Existing facilities

  • Drivers for development

  • Component technologies

  • Ultimate limits

  • Device development at IRAM

  • SIS Mixers

  • Receiving systems

  • Instrumentation

  • Future prospects

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff


Present and future facilities

IRAM mm/submm Astronomy

ALMA

Present and Future Facilities

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff


Drivers for receiver development
Drivers for Receiver Development mm/submm Astronomy

  • Sensitivity ! Ultimate limit: background limited

    • Receiver : electronics, optics

    • Atmosphere

    • Photon statisitics

  • Frequency coverage

    • Tuning range. All atmospheric windows

    • Instantaneous. Goal: one atmospheric window, several 10's of GHz!

  • Speed (mapping)

  • But also:

    • Stability: amplitude, phase

    • Linearity

    • Polarization purity

    • Reliability

    • Cost (hardware and manpower)

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff


Active component technologies
Active Component Technologies mm/submm Astronomy

SIS

HEB

HEMT

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff


Active component technologies1
Active Component Technologies mm/submm Astronomy

  • HEMT

    • Direct amplification

    •  115 GHz on telescopes;  200 GHz in the lab

    • Instantaneous b/w ~ 30%

  • SIS

    • Heterodyne mixing

    •  700GHz (Nb); >1THz (NbTiN)

    • Instantaeneous b/w 2 x 8 GHz

  • HEB

    • Heterodyne mixing

    •  Several THz

    • Instantaeneous b/w ~ 4 GHz

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff


Active component technologies2
Active Component Technologies mm/submm Astronomy

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff


Pushing the limits of ground based observing 1 037 ghz
Pushing the Limits of Ground-Based Observing: 1.037 GHz ! mm/submm Astronomy

Meledin et al 2004

CFA, Cambridge, MA

Moscow State University

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff


Quantum limit for sis mixers after a r kerr
Quantum Limit for SIS mixers mm/submm Astronomy (after A.R.Kerr)

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff


Fundamental limits versus state of art alma specs ssb
Fundamental Limits versus mm/submm Astronomy State-of-Art (ALMA specs, SSB)

Quantum

Atm (0.5mm PWV,

1.4 airmass)

ALMA SSB Spec

Practical limit

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff


Devices sis junction devt fab

P2-I1-43.41-3 mm/submm Astronomy

160

140

120

100

Current [µA]

80

60

40

20

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Voltage [mV]

Devices : SIS Junction Devt & Fab

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff


Devices sis junction devt fab1

PdBI Band 1 (83-116 GHz) mm/submm Astronomy junction

ALMA Band 7 (275-373 GHz)junction

Devices : SIS Junction Devt & Fab

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff


Devices heb mixer devt fab
Devices : HEB Mixer Devt & Fab mm/submm Astronomy

Optimisation systématique des films minces NbN

Mélangeur NbN : Courbe I/V et puissance IF

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff


Devices mems tunable capacitors
Devices : MEMs : Tunable Capacitors mm/submm Astronomy

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff


Sis mixers
SIS Mixers mm/submm Astronomy

  • DSB

  • SSB

  • 2SB (sideband separating)

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff


Dsb mixers results
DSB Mixers : Results mm/submm Astronomy

IRAM  ALMA B7

Trec = 2 hn/k

SRON  ALMA B9

Trec = 3 hn/k

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff


Ssb mixers pdbi principle of operation
SSB Mixers (PdBI) : Principle of Operation mm/submm Astronomy

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff


Ssb mixers results for pdbi 200 260 ghz
SSB Mixers; Results for mm/submm Astronomy PdBI 200-260 GHz

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff


Sideband separating 2sb mixers for alma band 7

Band 7 (IRAM) mm/submm Astronomy

275 – 373 GHz

Sideband Separating (2SB) Mixersfor ALMA Band 7

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff


2sb sis mixer principle of operation
2SB SIS Mixer: Principle of Operation mm/submm Astronomy

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff


Alma band 7 iram 2sb mixers results
ALMA Band 7 (IRAM) 2SB Mixers mm/submm Astronomy Results

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff


Alma band 7 iram 2sb mixers more results
ALMA Band 7 (IRAM) 2SB Mixers mm/submm Astronomy More Results

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff


Alma band 7 iram 2sb mixers more results1
ALMA Band 7 (IRAM) 2SB Mixers mm/submm Astronomy More Results

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff


Receiving systems pdbi
Receiving Systems : PdBI mm/submm Astronomy

New generation receivers for PdBI. 4 frequency bands  Dual-Pol  4GHz wide IF#1 unit currently undergoing system test

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff


Receiving systems atmospheric phase correction
Receiving Systems mm/submm Astronomy Atmospheric Phase Correction

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff


Receiving systems alma b7 cartridge

275 – 373 GHz mm/submm Astronomy

Dual polarization

Dual sideband USB+LSB

Four IF outputs 4 – 8 GHz

147 K SSB maximum

And many more specs…

Receiving Systems : ALMA B7 Cartridge

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff


Instrumentation antenna range

Herschel B1 horn verification mm/submm Astronomy

50 dB dynamic range @ 604 GHz

ALMA B7 cartridge, optics verification

>50dB dynamic range @ 300 GHz

Instrumentation : Antenna Range

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff


Instrumentation vector network analyzer 80 370 ghz
Instrumentation : mm/submm Astronomy Vector Network Analyzer. 80 – 370 GHz

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff


Where do we go from here areas for future work
Where Do We Go from Here ? mm/submm Astronomy Areas for Future Work

  • Array receivers for mapping speed

  • Push the IF b/w of SIS receivers to the limits:df/f ~ 10% ?

  • Design integrated pixels

  • Push HEMT receivers to lower noise and higher frequencies:

    • 30K over 85 – 115 GHz ?

    • ?? over 130 – 170 GHz ?

  • Any really new detector around the corner ?

  • Keep our spectral bands pollution-free !

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff


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