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Components, Receivers, and Instrumentation for Ground-Based mm/submm Astronomy. B.Lazareff, G.Butin, M.Carter, J.Y.Chenu, A.L.Fontana, S.Mahieu, D.Maier, F.Mattiocco, P.Serres K.Schuster, N.Krebs, T.Scherer, M.Schicke. Outline. Existing facilities Drivers for development

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components receivers and instrumentation for ground based mm submm astronomy

Components, Receivers, and Instrumentation for Ground-Based mm/submm Astronomy

B.Lazareff, G.Butin, M.Carter, J.Y.Chenu, A.L.Fontana, S.Mahieu, D.Maier, F.Mattiocco, P.Serres

K.Schuster, N.Krebs, T.Scherer, M.Schicke

outline
Outline
  • Existing facilities
  • Drivers for development
  • Component technologies
  • Ultimate limits
  • Device development at IRAM
  • SIS Mixers
  • Receiving systems
  • Instrumentation
  • Future prospects

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff

present and future facilities
IRAM

ALMA

Present and Future Facilities

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff

drivers for receiver development
Drivers for Receiver Development
  • Sensitivity ! Ultimate limit: background limited
    • Receiver : electronics, optics
    • Atmosphere
    • Photon statisitics
  • Frequency coverage
    • Tuning range. All atmospheric windows
    • Instantaneous. Goal: one atmospheric window, several 10\'s of GHz!
  • Speed (mapping)
  • But also:
    • Stability: amplitude, phase
    • Linearity
    • Polarization purity
    • Reliability
    • Cost (hardware and manpower)

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff

active component technologies
Active Component Technologies

SIS

HEB

HEMT

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff

active component technologies1
Active Component Technologies
  • HEMT
    • Direct amplification
    •  115 GHz on telescopes;  200 GHz in the lab
    • Instantaneous b/w ~ 30%
  • SIS
    • Heterodyne mixing
    •  700GHz (Nb); >1THz (NbTiN)
    • Instantaeneous b/w 2 x 8 GHz
  • HEB
    • Heterodyne mixing
    •  Several THz
    • Instantaeneous b/w ~ 4 GHz

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff

active component technologies2
Active Component Technologies

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff

pushing the limits of ground based observing 1 037 ghz
Pushing the Limits of Ground-Based Observing: 1.037 GHz !

Meledin et al 2004

CFA, Cambridge, MA

Moscow State University

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff

quantum limit for sis mixers after a r kerr
Quantum Limit for SIS mixers(after A.R.Kerr)

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff

fundamental limits versus state of art alma specs ssb
Fundamental Limits versusState-of-Art (ALMA specs, SSB)

Quantum

Atm (0.5mm PWV,

1.4 airmass)

ALMA SSB Spec

Practical limit

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff

devices sis junction devt fab

P2-I1-43.41-3

160

140

120

100

Current [µA]

80

60

40

20

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Voltage [mV]

Devices : SIS Junction Devt & Fab

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff

devices sis junction devt fab1
PdBI Band 1 (83-116 GHz)junction

ALMA Band 7 (275-373 GHz)junction

Devices : SIS Junction Devt & Fab

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff

devices heb mixer devt fab
Devices : HEB Mixer Devt & Fab

Optimisation systématique des films minces NbN

Mélangeur NbN : Courbe I/V et puissance IF

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff

devices mems tunable capacitors
Devices : MEMs : Tunable Capacitors

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff

sis mixers
SIS Mixers
  • DSB
  • SSB
  • 2SB (sideband separating)

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff

dsb mixers results
DSB Mixers : Results

IRAM  ALMA B7

Trec = 2 hn/k

SRON  ALMA B9

Trec = 3 hn/k

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff

ssb mixers pdbi principle of operation
SSB Mixers (PdBI) : Principle of Operation

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff

ssb mixers results for pdbi 200 260 ghz
SSB Mixers; Results for PdBI 200-260 GHz

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff

sideband separating 2sb mixers for alma band 7

Band 7 (IRAM)

275 – 373 GHz

Sideband Separating (2SB) Mixersfor ALMA Band 7

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff

2sb sis mixer principle of operation
2SB SIS Mixer: Principle of Operation

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff

alma band 7 iram 2sb mixers results
ALMA Band 7 (IRAM) 2SB MixersResults

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff

alma band 7 iram 2sb mixers more results
ALMA Band 7 (IRAM) 2SB MixersMore Results

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff

alma band 7 iram 2sb mixers more results1
ALMA Band 7 (IRAM) 2SB MixersMore Results

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff

receiving systems pdbi
Receiving Systems : PdBI

New generation receivers for PdBI. 4 frequency bands  Dual-Pol  4GHz wide IF#1 unit currently undergoing system test

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff

receiving systems atmospheric phase correction
Receiving Systems Atmospheric Phase Correction

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff

receiving systems alma b7 cartridge
275 – 373 GHz

Dual polarization

Dual sideband USB+LSB

Four IF outputs 4 – 8 GHz

147 K SSB maximum

And many more specs…

Receiving Systems : ALMA B7 Cartridge

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff

instrumentation antenna range
Herschel B1 horn verification

50 dB dynamic range @ 604 GHz

ALMA B7 cartridge, optics verification

>50dB dynamic range @ 300 GHz

Instrumentation : Antenna Range

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff

instrumentation vector network analyzer 80 370 ghz
Instrumentation : Vector Network Analyzer. 80 – 370 GHz

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff

where do we go from here areas for future work
Where Do We Go from Here ? Areas for Future Work
  • Array receivers for mapping speed
  • Push the IF b/w of SIS receivers to the limits:df/f ~ 10% ?
  • Design integrated pixels
  • Push HEMT receivers to lower noise and higher frequencies:
    • 30K over 85 – 115 GHz ?
    • ?? over 130 – 170 GHz ?
  • Any really new detector around the corner ?
  • Keep our spectral bands pollution-free !

Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff

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