Residues in honey
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Residues in Honey. Dr. Wolfgang Ritter CVUA Freiburg/Animal Health National and International Reference L aboratory Apimondia Standing Commission for Bee Pathology. Residues in Honey. Pollution Bee management Honey processing and storage Control of Disease. Pollution. Industry Traffic

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Residues in honey

Residues in Honey

Dr. Wolfgang Ritter

CVUA Freiburg/Animal Health

National and International Reference Laboratory

Apimondia Standing Commission for Bee Pathology


Residues in honey1

Residues in Honey

  • Pollution

  • Bee management

  • Honey processing and storage

  • Control of Disease


Pollution

Pollution

  • Industry

  • Traffic

  • Household

  • Agriculture (Pesticides)


Bee management

Bee management

  • Wax moth control: (Paradiclorinebenzol)

  • Bee repellents (Phenol)

  • Paintings (Heavy metals)

  • (Control of Bee diseases)


Honey processing and storage

Honey Processing and Storage

  • Processing(reduction of water content)

    • ashes

    • yeast

  • Container

    • heavy metals

    • remains

  • Storage in warehouses

    • overheating

    • odours


Treatment of diseases

Treatment of Diseases

Treatment with Medicaments

  • Nosemosis

  • Chalkbrood

  • American Foulbrood

  • European Foulbrood

  • Varroosis

  • Acariosis

  • Tropilaelaps infestation


Medicaments

Medicaments

  • National laws

  • EU regulations


Maxim um residue limits eu regulation 2377 90eec

MaximumResidue Limits(EU Regulation 2377/90EEC)

MRL means:

Maximum concentration of residue resulting from the use of veterinary medical product, which may be accepted by the EU Community to be legally permitted or recognized acceptable in or on food.


Maxim um residue limits eu reg 2377 90eec

MaximumResidue Limits(EU Reg. 2377/90EEC)

  • Annex Ifixed residue limits

    • Amitraz (Apivar) 200µg/kg

    • Coumphos (Perizin/Checkmite) 100 µg/kg

  • Annex III provisionalresidue limites

    • Cymiazole (Apitol) 1000µg/kg


Maxim um residue limits eu regulation 2377 90eec1

MaximumResidue Limits(EU Regulation 2377/90EEC)

  • Annex II no residue limits necessary

    • Fluvalinate (Apistan)

    • Flumethrin (Bayvarol)

    • Formic acid

    • Lactic Acid

    • Menthol

    • Thymol

    • Eucalyptol

    • Campher


Maxim um residue limits eu regulation 2377 90eec2

MaximumResidue Limits(EU Regulation 2377/90EEC)

  • Annex IV no safe maximal limits possible (prohibited for use)

    • Chloramphenicol

    • Nitrofurans


Maxim um residue limits eu regulation 2377 90eec3

MaximumResidue Limits(EU Regulation 2377/90EEC)

No residue limits for antibiotic in honey fixed

Residues of antibiotic in honey

not accepted


R esidues in honey

Residues in Honey

Nosemosis

Antibiotic

  • Fumagillin (Fumidil)

    • no registered product in EU (Funagillin not registered!)

    • no residues allowed in EU

    • rarely found as residue


R esidues in honey1

Residues in Honey

American and European Foulbrood

Sulfonamide

  • Sulfonamide (Sulfathiazol)

    • no registered product

    • resistence found in some areas

    • no residues alowed in the EU

    • up to 3,2 ppm in imported honeys


R esidues in honey2

Residues in Honey

Americanand European Foulbrood

Antibiotic

  • Terramycin/ Streptomycin/Tylosine

    • no registeredproduct in EU

    • no residues alowed in the EU( 20ppb under discussion for Streptomycin)

    • often found as residue


R esidues in honey3

Residues in Honey

Varroosis

synthetic Acaricides

  • Coumapos (Perizin, Neoron)

    • registered product in EU (Perizin, Checkmite?)

    • resistance found in Italy? (treatment with Neoron)

    • residues up to 100µg/kg (100 ppb) allowed

    • residues up to 20 ppb (Perizin) in legal treatmentsand up to 500 ppb (Neoron) in illegal treatments


R esidues in honey4

Residues in Honey

Varroosis

synthetic Acaricides

  • Bromopropylate

    • no registered product in EU (FolbexVA since 8 years not registered))

    • no residues allowed in the EU

    • rarely found as residue


R esidues in honey5

Residues in Honey

Varroosis

synthetic Acaricide

  • Amitraz

    • registered product in France (Apivar)

    • many illegal products in use

    • residues up to 200µg/kg (200 ppb) allowed

    • resistance found in some areas

    • rarely found as residue from legal use

    • often residues from illegal use (metabolites)


R esidues in honey6

Residues in Honey

Varroosis

synthetic Acaricide

  • Tau-fluvalinate

    • registered product in the EU (Apistan)

    • often illegal use (Klartan)

    • resistance in many areas

    • no EU residue limits

    • rarely found as residue from legal use

    • high residues from illegal use


R esidues in honey7

Residues in Honey

Varroosis

synthetic Acaricide

  • Flumetrine

    • registered product in the EU (Bayvarol)

    • resistance in many areas (use of Klartan)

    • no EU residue limits

    • never found as residue from legal use


R esidues in honey8

Residues in Honey

Varroosis

natural Substances(allowed in organic beekeeping)

Formic acid

  • registered in EU

  • no residue limit in EU (Germany 600 ppm)

  • rarely found as residue

    Lactic acid

  • registered in EU

  • no residue limit in EU

  • rarely found as residue


R esidues in honey9

Residues in Honey

Varroosis

natural Substances(allowed in organic beekeeping)

Oxalic acid

  • registration on the way

  • no residue limit in EU

  • rarely found as residue

    Thymol

  • registered product (Apilifevar)

  • many illegal products

  • no residue limit in EU

  • sometimes found as residue (illegal overdose)


Where residues

Where Residues?

Honey

Food

water-soluble

Wax

Cosmetics

fat-soluble

Propolis

Medicaments

fat-soluble


Enrichment of lipophile substances into wax

Enrichment of lipophile substances into wax


R esidues in wax

Residues in Wax

400 samples from the German market (Wallner 2001)

  • 60% with residues

  • 20% Bromopropylate (Folbex) (<5ppm)

  • 47% Coumaphos (Perizin, Asuntol) (some >10 ppm)

  • 22 % Fluvalinate (Apistan, Klartan) (some up to < 5ppm, seldom up to 15ppm)


Residues in propolis

Residues in Propolis

Results of 22 samples from German market (Wallner,2001)

  • 5% Bromopropylate (Folbex) (4ppm)

  • 9% Coumaphos (Perizin, Asuntol)(6ppm)

  • 31 % Fluvalinate (Apistan, Klartan) (>8ppm)


Where we are

Where we are?

  • Europe

    • In tests half of honeys offended against regulations (different antibiotic)

    • Chinese honey banned from market (Chloramphenicol)

  • Canada

    • Recall of products (Chloramphenicol, Nitrofuran)

  • Australia

    • Recall of honey (Nitrofurans)


Food control of honey

Exporting Country

Private Laboratories

Laboratories of Beekeepers Ass.

Packer

Beekeeper

Trade

National

Food Control Authority

Food Control of Honey


Residues in honey

Consumer protection

Field Service

Prevention of diseases

Control of diseases

Direct

Preventive

Optimal

Diagnosis of diseases

Food control

Laboratory Service


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